Natural History of a City Creek Canyon Year

Discussion, Reviews and Contact

Quercus gambelii Leaf

Cover photograph adapted from Thomson, Michael. Quercus gambelii, Gambel’s oak leaf. University of California Museum of Paleontology and Berkeley Museum of Natural History. Specimen No. ACL397. © University of California Museum of Paleontology. Used with permission.

Cover design © Kurt A. Fisher 2018


This is a discussion page for the planned release of the e-book “The Natural History of a City Creek Canyon Year”.

Thoreau wrote that, “[i]f we unconsciously yield to it [Nature], will direct us aright” (Thoreau “Walking” (1862), 662). Thoreau spent four hours per day observing nature across a lifetime. Can Thoreau’s experience be replicated in modern urbanized America, and if so, how would that experience change one? Would it set you “aright”? The second question explored here is how natural areas come to be preserved. Is this the result of city leaders planning for the future needs of a community or does the impetus to preserve come from the aggregate of the actions and emotions of ordinary citizens? The stage used to answer these questions is City Creek Canyon – a small canyon to the north of downtown Salt Lake City, Utah.

This book has four themes. First, it is a snapshot in time of changes in an undeveloped canyon close to an urban center each day over the course of year, written in a journal format. Second, as common temperature zone natural events are seen, like the annual growth of leaves and their falling in autumn, recent scientific literature about that event is reviewed. Third, the history of the development of the adjacent city and the natural area is reviewed from an ecological perspective. Fourth, the limitations of the scientific method in guiding social and personal decision making are examined. That discussion emphasizes how citizens should use critical thinking skills to approach interpreting the many scientific study results in our daily news.

The book is presented in journal format, and each day is divided into four sections – a daily nature journal, a digest of Thoreau’s corresponding journal entry, a historical or scientific essay, and a summary of newspaper articles related to the canyon on that date going back to the 1870s. A separate “Table of Essays” in the Appendices provides enhanced navigation to scientific and historical essays within daily nature journal entries. A “Table of Days” in the appendix provides enhanced navigation to each date.

The book is distributed in e-pub format, and it is long. The equivalent physical version would span about 700 pages. Despite its length, the core observation journal and scientific essays comprise about 350 pages of the total, and the book can comfortably be read in two or three days.

Pricing and Purchase Links

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Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • Table of Contents
  • Table of Lists
  • Table of Figures
  • Introduction
  • Estival
  • Serotinal
  • Autumnal
  • Hibernal
  • Prevernal
  • Vernal
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Common Name Index
  • Subject Index
  • Scientific Name Index
  • Appendices
    • Maps
    • Table of Essays
    • Table of Days
    • Navigating the Digital Edition
    • Note on Fair Use
    • Uniform Resource Locators for References
  • Suggested Reading
  • About the Author

Sample Chapters

All sample chapters are © Kurt A. Fisher 2018.

Table of Essays

From the book. © Kurt A. Fisher 2018.

The table of essays is ordered by subject and journal entry date beginning with the estival season on June 15th.


• June 15th: What are the different definitions of the seasons in popular culture, astronomy and ecology?

• June 15th: How many days are there in each of the six ecological seasons?

• September 20th: Throughout the seasons, how does the length of twilight change?

• November 13th: Throughout the seasons, when is the speed of change in the length of the day at its maximum and minimum?

• March 20th: What is the relative light energy that falls on the canyon on the winter solstice as compared to the other seasons of the year?

• May 13th: How did nearby supernovas and novae influence the evolution of life on Earth?

• May 13th: What is the orbital path of the Solar System through the Milky Way and through the local supercluster of galaxies over the next billion years?

Biology, generally

• Preface: What is a species?

• November 12th: Trout have nearly 180 degree vision.

• December 10th: What bird and wasp nests are in the canyon?

• December 20th: How many cells are there in one meter rectangular parallelepiped between 4 kilometers below the surface of the Earth, including a human standing on the surface, and to 10 kilometers above the surface?

• December 21st: How do the number of cells in the human brain, the number of neural connections in the human brain, and the number of stars in the visible universe compare?

• March 23rd: How many earthworms live along the first mile of canyon road?


• July 1st: How do plants talk with each other and to insects in order to coordinate plants’ defenses against parasites and herbivores?

• July 1st: How do trees talk with within and across species over vast common fungal networks in order to coordinate plants’ defenses or to direct fungi to release beneficial nutrients?

• July 2nd: Why do plants emit strong fragrances in the early spring but not in the summer?

• July 3rd, July 4th and July 5th: The Gambel’s oak forest in the canyon and surrounding the Salt Lake Valley are hybrids and are not pure oak stands. They are second generation crosses of Gambel’s oak ad Arizona shrub oak. In the Salt Lake valley, there are also rare hybrid first generation crosses between Gambel’s oak trees and Arizona shrub oak.

• July 17th: How do plants transport seeds uphill?

• July 19th: Cottonwood trees in the canyon are, like the Gambel’s oaks, also principally crossed hybrids.

• July 19th: What are the common trees in the canyon and where can example of those trees be found in the city?

• July 21st: What lichens can be found in the canyon ?

• October 11th: When do deciduous trees, including Gambel’s oaks lose their leaves?

• October 19th: What edible plants exist in the canyon?

• November 3rd: What are the aerodynamics of helicoptering maple seeds?

• December 6th: Utah lichens cannot be used as an indicator for Salt Lake air pollution.

• February 10th, February 11th and February 12th: What are the characteristics and distribution of a Gambel’s oak tree? In the canyon, what are the hybrid crosses between Gambel’s oak and Arizona shrub oak?

• February 13th, February 14th and May 9th: Since Gambel’s oaks reproduce asexually, are they essentially immortal like aspen trees?

• March 17th: What kills old, large-diameter Narrowleaf cottonwood trees in the canyon? How are large diameter trees important to the canyon’s ecology?

• March 17th: How long do large trees live in the canyon? In comparison, how long to large trees live in the city?

• May 5th and June 1st: When do various temperate trees leaf-out during the spring?

• June 5th: Horsetail pollen has the ability to walk.

• June 10th: When did invasive Cheat grass arrive in the Salt Lake foothills? Can the foothills be restored with native grasses?

• June 10th: Does the Fibonacci series appear in whirls of thistles and other plants in the canyon?


• February 24th: How did Utah’s population increase from 1850 through the 1930s?

• May 28th: How will Utah’s population change in the future?


• June 23rd and March 5th: What are the various habitats in the canyon by increasing altitude?

• June 24th: Since 1870, has the Gambel’s oak forest been increasing downslope along the canyon’s foothills?

• July 7th: During 1850 to the 1930, early Utah ranchers in the pursuit of eighty percent profit margins in cattle grazing, transformed Utah’s and the canyon’s native grasslands from native grasses to invasive Cheat grass. How that environmental disaster may have contributed to the passage of the 1964 Wilderness Act.

• December 22nd and June 14th: What are the trophic ecological levels of the canyon?

• March 3rd to March 6th: What was the natural state of the canyon and Salt Lake valley prior to arrival of the Euro-American colonists in 1847?

• May 10th: How much animal dung do flies remove from the canyon? What is the mass of flies along the first mile of canyon road?

• June 10th: Did the Euro-American colonists of 1847 overgraze and denude the 20 mile long Salt Lake Valley within as little as 4 years?

• June 14th: What are the ecological relationships between soils and some 290 species and families of plants and animals in the canyon?

• June 14th: If there are at least 300 species in the canyon, what are their potential number of interactions, taken two, three, and four at a time?


• June 19th: In a modern temperate forest, when did various plants and animals first appear in the geologic record?

• June 30th: Plants are not defenseless, and they are winning the co-evolutionary war against herbivores, including humans.

• September 12th: How did evolutionary forces cause water striders to optimize their vertical jumps?

• November 5th: One-hundred and forty-five million years ago, how did flying insects and web spinning spiders co-evolve?

• May 30th: Did modern bird groups evolve before or after the KT extinction?

• May 31st: When did butterflies evolve?

• June 2nd: When did flowering plants and trees evolve?


• September 1st and January 2nd: What geologic faults exist in the canyon?

• September 8th: What is the Grandview Peak landslide?

• December 24th: What is the geology of natural rock bridge at mile 0.9 at the Red Bridge?

• January 2nd: What is the probability that a greater than 6.75 magnitude earthquake will strike City Creek Canyon and Salt Lake City in the next 50 or 100 years?

• January 3rd: What is the geology of the canyon between Guardhouse Gate and the natural rock bridge at mile 0.9?

• January 5th: What caused one mile long landslide in the canyon at mile 1.5?

• January 6th: Where are the four shorelines of ancient Lake Bonneville in the canyon?

• January 7th: How did the subduction of the Fallaron oceanic plate under the North American continental plate between 110 and 35 million years ago create the present day geography of the Great Basin, of Utah, and of the canyon? Where in the canyon are breccia deposits created during Utah’s volcanic era about 35 million years ago?

• January 9th: What are the geologic strata seen a cross-section of the Wasatch Front Mountain Range between City Creek Canyon on the north and Big Cottonwood Twin Peaks on the south?

• February 15th: What did the canyon look like 12,000 years ago in the Pleistocene and were humans present?

• February 21st: How much of the canyon’s surface consists of dust that fell from outer space? When jogging four miles, how many grams of space dust do you breath?

• March 2nd: What is the Anthropocene period?

• March 19th: How City Creek stream transported about 1.5 billion tons of sediment (0.008 cubic miles) to the City’s delta over the last 11,000 years.

• May 14th: How did earthquake faults make City Creek Canyon in the north Salt Lake valley salient different from the south Salt Lake valley salient at Traverse Mountain?


• June 18th: How accurate was the first location of the Salt Lake Base Meridian marker? In 1879, how were the modern survey township and range section markers located?

• June 28th: How has the civil and social advancement of women reflected in changes in clothing of female bicyclists?

• July 12th: Do the Mormons have special religious or cultural values that are disposed to preserving nature?

• July 15th: How did Salt Lake City respond to homelessness during the early 1900s?

• July 15th: How did Salt Lake City respond to homelessness between 2005 and 2017?

• July 24th: In 1871, how did General Philippe Régis Denis de Keredern de Trobriand averted a massacre in the streets of Salt Lake City.

• November 30th: How the Utes and Goshutes taught the Mormon colonists to survive by eating Sego lily roots and thistles.

• January 21st: How Salt Lake City tried and then missed the opportunity to have an Emerald Ring park found around many eastern United States cities.

• January 21st: What is the symbolism of the central female statute and the four lower surrounding statutes on the City and County Building at 400 South State Street?

• February 22nd: How did Salt Lake City come to plant and maintain 85,000 public trees?

• March 3rd to March 8th: What was the pre-1847 and pre-colonization state of nature in the canyon and Salt Lake Valley.

• March 6th: In December 1848, the Euro-American colonists formed a committee of extermination that killed 3,374 mammals, birds and other wildlife in the valley.

• March 7th: What First Peoples were in the canyon and valley on the arrival of the Euro-American colonists in 1847? What major cultural factors determined the relationship between the Mormons and the valley’s Ute tribal members?

• March 8th: In January 1850, the colonists form a committee of extermination to kill the remaining 150 Ute Tumpanawach band of the Ute First Peoples in the Salt Lake and Utah valleys. On February 13th, 1850, the colonists massacred them at the Battle of Table Mountain, Utah in, what in modern terms, amounted to a war crime.

• March 9th: The economic miracle of the United States and of Utah between 1800 and the 1960s can be explained in terms of equity capitalization and not in terms of exceptional Euro-American abilities.

• March 10th: Did City Creek have enough water to support the initial 5,000 Euro-American colonists of 1847?

• March 11th: When designing Salt Lake City, the Euro-American colonists of 1847 underestimated the flood cycles of City Creek Canyon.

• March 20th: What was the legal basis for Brigham Young’s control of the canyon from 1847 to the 1870s?

• March 20th: How did the development of the West result in modern Utah issuing over 400,000, or 65 percent of the total of its state concealed gun permits to people who do not reside in Utah?

• March 21st to March 30th: How did the Euro-American colonists exploit and develop City Creek Canyon for its natural resources? How did they change the pre-colonization natural environment?

• March 20th, March 21st, April 6th. How does the historical Mormon doctrine of theodemocracy relate to Utah’s modern political and social structures?

• March 26th: How did the early northern Utah mining industry cause 95,000 cases of lead poisoning through 1903?

March 26th

• March 27th: What were the components of Salt Lake City’s early water main distribution system in City Creek Canyon?

• March 28th: When was chlorinated water introduced into the City Creek water supply?

• March 28th: How did 18,000 cases and 4,500 deaths from typhoid fever and 4,500 infant deaths from diarrhea in Salt Lake City between 1847 and 1924 drive residents to protect City Creek Canyon as a natural area in the 1980s?

• April 1st: What events led up to the City adopting master plan in 1986 and annexing and rezoning City Creek Canyon as a protected natural area in 1989?

• April 4th: How did public and business interests fight for City Creek Canyon during the nineteenth and early twentieth century?

• April 5th to April 7th: Will and how will the canyon be protected from development in the future?

• May 29th: When and how was Memory Grove Park constructed in the lower canyon as a memorial to Utah’s war dead?

• June 10th: Did the Euro-American colonists of 1847 overgraze and denude the 20 mile long Salt Lake Valley within as little as 4 years?

• June 13th: What do nineteenth and early twentieth century maps tell us about what Salt Lake City residents felt about City Creek Canyon? What do known paintings of the canyon tells about relationships between the City and its residents?


• July 6th: There are as many as 310 million crickets in the canyon and in the city foothills.

• July 16th: From the 1850s to the early 1900s, the Intermountain West, Utah, and the canyon were subject to Rocky Mountain locust plagues of up to 3.5 trillion insects. Then the locusts mysteriously went extinct.

• September 12th: What is the physics of how water striders propel themselves across the surface of the water?

• November 3rd: How do helicoptering seeds and insects fly using leading edge vortices?

• May 7th: Like birds, butterflies also see in the ultra-violet spectrum.

• May 10th: What are common spring butterflies in the canyon?

• May 19th: What plants host which butterflies in the canyon?

• May 26th: The top meter of Great Salt Lake during the peak summer season may contain 1.7 trillion brine shrimp and 22.8 billion fly larvae.

• June 8th: What percentage of animal species engage in metamorphosis during development?


• September 7th: Does Utah’s coyote bounty program increase automobile deaths by reducing coyote predation of deer?

• November 2nd and July 17th: How do Western porcupine populations fluctuate?

• April 10th: The life-span of mammals is limited by a constant number of heart beats, about one billion for most mammals, but humans uniquely are allocated about 3 billion heartbeats.

• June 3rd: Why do Salt Lake County officials remove all the beavers from the canyon? What is Utah’s population of beavers?

Meteorology, Hydrology, and Climate

• July 7th and July 8th: How do Cheat grass fires contribute to cloudburst flooding of Utah and Wasatch Front cities?

• July 18th: Why in the afternoon, the wind in City Creek Canyon blows the wrong way – downhill instead of uphill.

• July 21st: What glaciers existed in the past in the Salt Lake valley canyons, when did they retreat, and what do they tell us about Utah’s future climate?

• August 3rd: What is the increased mortality from Salt Lake City’s summer time air pollution? What portion of Salt Lake City’s ozone is transported across the Pacific Ocean?

• December 28th: When is the season of heaviest winter air pollution in the canyon and in Salt Lake City? What is the chemical composition of Salt Lake City’s PM 2.5 winter air pollution?

• February 1st and February 2nd: What SNOTEL weather stations exist in the canyon and what is average annual snowfall in the canyon?

• February 6th: What is the stream flow of City Creek Canyon?

• February 7th: What is the Pacific Quasi-Decadal Oscillation and how does it affect the canyon’s and northern Utah’s weather?

• February 8th: How does Utah’s and United States’ air pollution levels relate to the de-industrialization of the United States and globalization of United States’ manufacturing capacity?

• February 9th: How has the canyon’s and northern Utah’s climate changed over the last 576 years based on tree ring studies?

• February 24th: What flood and drought cycles have occurred in the canyon and in Salt Lake City since 1847? How do those relate to increases in Salt Lake City’s population growth since 1847?

• February 26th: During air pollution inversions, PM 2.5 air pollution decreases fifty percent from the valley floor to higher elevations along the ridgeline above the Avenues and in the canyon.

• February 27th: What is the effect of winter inversion air pollution on Salt Lake City’s depression and suicide rates?

• February 27th: Does living at higher altitude Intermountain cities increase the rate of depression as compared to sea level due to decreased air pressure?

• February 28th: Is global warming detectable in local weather station data?

• March 1st: Is the Pacific Quasi-Decadal Oscillation and its sister oscillation, the Atlantic Multi-Decadal Oscillation, masking the effects of global climate warming on North American continent?

• March 12th: The downtown has been repeatedly flooded by high-snowpack runoff and cloudbursts since 1847.

• March 13th: Between 1900 and the 1930s, cloudburst storms coupled with overgrazing at the headwaters of the canyons, caused torrential floods in northern Utah’s cities, including Salt Lake City.

• March 14th: What is the Advanced Hydrographic Prediction Service?

• March 14th: In 1847, the city was laid out with an inherent design defect: City Creek was diverted around the city center instead of building the city’s center around its natural banks. This error will continue periodic future flooding of the central business district, notwithstanding cyclic engineering solutions.

• March 6th: What is the current state of research on whether negative ions in the air improves mood?

• March 19th: How City Creek stream transported about 1.5 billion tons of sediment (0.008 cubic miles) to the City’s delta over the last 11,000 years.

• March 25th: How does the ph and salinity of rainwater in the Intermountain West and the canyon compare to the ph and salinity of rainwater on the coasts?

• April 4th: How does the jet stream over the canyon change over the seasons?

• April 14th: What causes the April to June wind storms in the canyon and in Salt Lake valley?

• May 16th: What is the physics of standing waves in mountain streams?

• May 26th: Will the Great Salt Lake evaporate to become a dry bed and how does this relate to the future of Utah’s migratory bird populations?

• May 26th and May 27th: What studies have modeled the present level and future levels of the Great Salt Lake? What factors will change the lake’s future levels?

• June 1st: How will the United States’ withdrawal from the Paris Climate Agreement impact future bird populations in the canyon?

• June 2nd: Did glaciers exist in City Creek Canyon?

• June 4th: What is the volume of underground water stored in the Salt Lake salient?


• July 16th: Do birds sing in regional dialects?

• January 14th: How birds sing at frequencies designed to best penetrate sound absorbing leaves.

• May 6th and May 20th: What are the spring birds in the canyon?

• May 6th: How do birds see their iridescent refraction of their feathers in the ultra-violet spectrum? The view that humans see of birds is not what they see of each other.

• May 15th: How many nesting Peregrine falcons are there in Utah?

• May 20th: How has the diversity of birds in the canyon changed since the nineteenth century?

• May 21st: Are populations of Utah migratory and resident birds increasing or decreasing?

• May 22nd: Are regional populations of migratory and resident birds increasing or decreasing?

• May 23rd: Are continental populations of migratory and resident birds increasing or decreasing?

• May 24th: What are the birds of concern in the canyon?

• May 24th: Thirty-percent of the Bald eagles in the west over-winter in Utah.

• May 26th: Will the Great Salt Lake evaporate to become a dry bed, and how does this relate to the future of Utah’s migratory bird populations?


• June 15th: What are the different definitions of the seasons in popular culture, astronomy and ecology?

• August 10th, and September 21st: What are the signs of coming fall?

• August 27th, September 30th, November 8th, November 17th and December 17th: What are the signs of coming winter?

• February 3rd, February 12th, February 14th, February 22nd, March 7th, and March 12th: What are the signs of coming spring?

• June 15th, June 19th, and June 20th: What are the signs of coming summer?

Philosophy and Nature Experience

• July 13th: Why Henry Thoreau and Wallace Stegner believed that nature needed to be preserved in order to protect our souls and sanity.

• July 13th and July 25th: What is solitude, and is its pursuit a form of narcissism?

• November 12th: What are the main types of nihilism in modern culture?

• March 18th: How does experiencing nature without digital devices restore the mind’s attention and executive functions? What is Attention Restoration Theory (ART)?

• April 8th: How has changing views of competition vs. cooperation changed the United States economy since the early twentieth century? How does this relate to competition vs. cooperation in nature?

• April 16th: Does modern technology hinder or enhance our appreciation of nature? To what extent is the internet information searching hindered by intentionally or unintentionally erroneous information?

• April 19th to April 22nd: What is the scientific evidence that the love of and experience of nature are an inherent, biological human need?

• Various journal entries: How have people and communities answered the question, “Why should natural areas be preserved?”: Religious Leader Brigham Young, 1850s (is a religious duty) (July 12th); Philosopher Thoreau, 1860s (to maintain cultural vitality) (July 13th); Poet Walt Whitman, 1890s (is necessary for mental health) (April 27th); Writer Stegner, 1960s (is necessary for mental health) (July 13th); Environmental physiologist Eric Fromm, 1960s (is an inherent, healthy human psychological need) (April 19th); Legalistic, 1970s – the Endangered Species Act (is an American cultural value and an international legal duty) (April 27th); Sociobiologist E. O. Wilson, 1980s (is a genetically programmed human need) (April 20th to April 27th); Architect Professor Roger S. Ulrich, 1990s (is practical in that nature reduces stress, promotes recovery from illness, is an effective form of therapy, restores attention, and reduces crime) (April 23rd to April 25th); Religious Leader Pope Francis, 2015 (is a religious and moral duty given an ecological crisis) (Conclusion); the New Ecological Paradigm (because we fear that nature is unraveling) (April 29th); Philosopher Arne Naess, 1973 to the present (nature has an independent ecological egalitarian right-to-exist, separate from the needs of humanity) (April 29th).

• April 23rd to April 25th: What is the scientific evidence that experiencing nature and the outdoors restores the body, restores the mind’s executive functions, reduces stress, and reduces crime?

• April 26th: What values do humans express when relating to nature?

• April 27th: How should the many expert studies concerning health, social issues and economics be evaluated and rated? How can the model of the American Heart Association help in that daily activity?

• April 27th: Should preservation of nature be predicated on an inherent, biological need for nature or on simple political will?

• April 29th: There is a long-standing and overwhelming national consensus that the environment should be protected.

• June 6th: How causation is proved in experiments using the logic principles of sufficiency and necessity. How this can be used to evaluate expert studies about economics, nature and climate.

Finding Newspaper Articles at Utah Digital Newspapers

The book references many old local Utah newspapers in the daily digest of articles. The Utah Digital Newspapers archive is a project of the J. Willard Marriott Library, University of Utah in conjunction with many Utah newspapers. The newspapers donated their historical copies and the University of Utah provided digitization, indexing and hosting services. Referenced newspaper articles prior to 1940 can be located in the archive. As an example, we will find a December 30, 1909 Salt Lake Tribune article about a proposed dirigible airport at Ensign Peak. Steps, as of December 2017, are as follows:

  • At the Utah Digital Newspapers, click “Advanced Search”.
  • In the “Advanced Search” dialogue,
    • In the date range boxes, enter a date range one week around the article date in reverse order “YYYY-MM-DD”, e.g. – “1909-12-22” and “1910-01-06”.
    • In the newspapers box, click “All Newspapers” to unselect all newspapers.
    • In the newspapers box, click just the one or two newspapers of interest, e.g. – “Salt Lake Tribune”.
    • [Optional]: In the top Keywords box, enter a keyword or phrase, e.g. – “City Creek” in double quotes for a phrase or a single word without quotes. For this example, enter the keyword “Airport” without double quotes
  • Click “Submit” at the bottom of the page.
  • Scroll through the returned articles until an applicable article title is seen and click on the article’s thumbnail image. In this example, the article title is “Utah Aviator Wants Concessions”. The interface includes an option to download copies of articles.

Installing the Kobo Reader

The Kobo Reader comes in two main versions: First, the applet version available for any Android device through Google Play Store or for Mac IOS devices through the IStore. The second are desktop versions for both Windows and Mac. For Windows, the Kobo Reader applet is better because it includes the ability to import any epub formatted document on your local drive.

There is a potential problem installing the Kobo Reader application on a Windows machine that does not use Microsoft (internet) Login. This will apply to a small minority of Windows power users. Microsoft Login uses your email address to login into your desktop computer. To install the Kobo Reader applet, your desktop computer will require you to use Microsoft Login. You can install Kobo Reader and then reset your Windows desktop computer to again use a local login password.

If on your Windows desktop you are using a local desktop password (not using Microsoft Login) and before you install Kobo Reader, locate and write down you Microsoft Login password. This is different from your local desktop login password, if you are not using Microsoft Login. Setting up a Kobo account and installing the Kobo applet on your desktop will require you to use the Microsoft Login and it will reset Microsoft Login as the default login method. Once you have installed Kobo Reader and reboot your desktop, you will be asked to login to your desktop computer using Microsoft Login.

To reset your Windows computer to use a local login and not Microsoft Login, use the following steps. Login, right-click on the Start button and go to the Control Panel. Go to “User Accounts and Family Safety”, “User Accounts”, click your account name, then “Make changes to my account in PC Settings.” In the “Make changes” dialogue, there is an option to “disconnect from Microsoft Account”. Clicking this option will undo using Microsoft Login and will ask you to reenter your original local laptop password. On rebooting, your Windows desktop will again use a local only login.


Site author: Kurt A. Fisher, Salt Lake City, Utah.




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