City Creek Nature Notes – Salt Lake City

June 23, 2017

June 22nd

Day of the Butterflies

Day of the Butterflies

1:30 p.m. In the heat of the afternoon, the first mile canyon road is lined with butterflies, and in total there are about thirty in the first mile. A large Red Admiral butterfly (Vanessa atalanta), a black butterfly with contrasting red-orange chevrons, slowly moves up canyon. The Red Admiral is hawk of butterflies. Unlike most butterflies, that frenetically flap and change direction, the Red Admiral moves it wings in great, slow soaring motions. Cabbage white butterflies (Pieris rapae) play in the hot sun as western tiger swallowtail (Papilio rutulus) also pass by. Two Common sulphur butterflies (Colias philodice eriphyle) chase each other. Two unidentified butterflies fly by. One is the bright yellow with a trailing black wingbar. The second is a small orange.

Large Common whitetail dragonflies patrol overhead. In the Yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis) weeds that lines both sides of the road, Western Yellowjacket wasps (Vespula penslvanica) feast.

At Pleasant Valley, city watershed crews are mowing the sides of the Pipeline Trail.

* * * *

Per Thoreau’s “Journal” on June 22nd, 1851, he sees blooms of yellow loose strife and bladderwort. On June 22nd, 1852, he sees a rainbow after a thunderstorm. He observes that fireflies are numerous. On June 22nd, 1853, he notes that even night air is warm. During an evening walk, he notes that blueberries are coming in.

* * * *

On June 22nd, 2014, Nathan Peters set a new course record in the 35th annual Wasatch Steeple Chase, an annual running race that goes for 17 miles up City Creek Canyon, that gains 4,000 feet while going over Black Mountain, and end back down at Memory Grove (Deseret News). Two-hundred and forty runners participated. Peters finishes in two hours and eleven minutes (id). On June 22nd, 1996, Mayor Deedee Corradini temporarily ordered suspension of construction of the Bonneville Shoreline Trail due to complaints from Avenues’ residents (Salt Lake Tribune). Planning Commission Chairman Ralph Becker noted that that a controversial trail alignment near Ensign Peak was a condition of the developer receiving approval for a luxury subdivsion (id). On June 22nd, 1906, an Intermountain Republican editorial accused the Salt Lake Tribune of spreading lurid lies about Mormon culture in eastern newspapers, including that “Utah is steeped In lawlessness; that depravity runs riot; that the waters of City Creek canyon going down our gutters [are] tinted with the ruddy flow from blood atonement; that all Mormons are polygamist; and that a presentable woman is in peril of than her life . . .”

June 22, 2017

June 15th

First Day of the Estival Season

4:30 p.m. It is the first day of the Estival ecological season, the time of greatest heat (Feb. 16th). Astronomical summer begins on June 20th. The late spring heat wave continues and temperatures in the low nineties. I drive to the canyon for short jog, and as I exit the car, my senses are assaulted. The top of a large Douglas fir is heavy with new cones. A Rock squirrel scampers across the parking lot. Curly dock is turning its summer brown. Several Western tiger swallowtails chase each other. Cabbage white butterflies wind between tree branches. A Song sparrow sings loudly. For the first time this year, the air smells of summer and of greenery under hot a sun. All of this occurs within the first quarter of a minute.

The stream’s flow is dropping, but its depth is medium. At the base of the fir, its pine cones also show the Fibonacci whirl pattern seen in bull thistle blossoms (June 10th). The blossoms of Solomon seal plants along the first mile are fading, and some of the plants are beginning to brown.

With the addition of the last summer quality, heat, the canyon is transformed by insects. Previously, light has been increasing throughout spring, and melting snow and violent storms have added water. Heat is last elemental that completes the canyon’s return to prolific life after last winter’s sleep. The first mile has become a boulevard of butterflies. There is a mini-explosion of Cabbage white butterflies in the first quarter mile, and about twenty line both sides of the road. They are joined by Painted lady and Spring azure butterflies. An unidentified yellow butterfly with a black band on its trailing wing line flutter. In the Yellow sweet clover and Red clover weed (Trifolium pratense), which is a purple-blue invasive in Utah, are laced with Yellow-jacket wasps and domestic Honey bees. Above my butterfly escorts, a new large, brown dragonfly with black-spotted wings has matured. These are massive for a flying insect – about three inches across. These are female Common whitetail dragonflies (Libellula lydia). A large four inch mosquito, the common Floodwater mosquito (Aedes vexans), has perished on the road, and since it is unmoving, I can examine its otherworldly structure. This nationally-distributed Floodwater mosquito is a secondary vector for dog heartworm, and more recently in states other than Utah, it has been implicated as transmitting West Nile virus. In Utah, the common House mosquito (Culex pipiens) is the primary vector of West Nile. I am walking through a garland of butterflies.

* * * *

Per Thoreau’s “Journal” on June 15th, 1840, he admires the reflections of trees in water. On June 15th, 1851, he sees the first wild rose of the season, blue-eyed grass, yarrow, blooming lambkill, and Solomon’s seal. He lists a series of spring flowering plants. On June 15th, 1852, he hears crickets and sees dandelions, fleabane, sorrel and purple orchids blooming. He hears a seringo and a hawk. At night, he sees fire flies and the reflection of a bright star in water. On June 15th, 1853, he notes that clover is at its peak and sees many wild roses in bloom. On June 15th, 1854, he notes that birds are singing less. On June 15th, 1858, he notes wool grass growing in a meadow.

* * * *

On June 15th, 1909, a teamster, William Luther, had his legs crushed in an truck accident while hauling gravel along City Creek Canyon Road. On June 15th, 1902, the Salt Lake Tribune argues in favor of residents using filters to better purify domestic water, in part coming from City Creek Canyon.

June 1, 2017

May 31st

Filed under: Birds, Butterfly, Light — canopus56 @ 5:17 pm

Evolution of Butterflies

7:00 p.m. I only spend a few minutes in the canyon today, listening to the sounds of birds as they respond to the long sunsets. Light fades now near 8:30 p.m.

* * * *

Butterflies, as compared to birds, evolved relatively recently. They are believed to have evolved about 40 to 50 million years ago at the same time that the flowering plants that they feed on had a major radiation. About 35 million years ago as the first butterflies evolved, the melting of the Farallon Plate as it passed under Utah resulted in a volcanic era, and volcanoes formed in west central Utah around present day Tintic, Utah (January 7th). City Creek Canyon’s volcanic breccia layer between picnic sites 6 and 9 formed at this time. In 2010, Roe and colleagues reviewed the state of phylogenetic studies that reconstruct the evolution of butterflies, but unlike Pacheco and the first birds, no clear timeline for each divergence of orders could be created (Roe et al 2010).

* * * *

A May 31st, 1994 Salt Lake Tribune article on increased Salt Lake valley canyon recreation crowding, republished a 1986 quote from Gale Dick, a long-time canyon activist and co-founder of Save Our Canyons, regarding the nature of the Salt Lake valley canyons, including City Creek,

“It is time to recognize the public lands in the Wasatch Mountains as Salt Lake Valley’s magnificent de facto public park. The mountains and canyons provide year-round recreation and the simple pleasures of forest, streams and mountains to visitors on a scale exceeding that of Yellowstone Park. After watershed protection, what should be the over-riding goal of the Salt Lake County Canyons Master Plan? Simply this: To keep the canyons available year-round for predominantly local citizens’ recreational use without excessive cost, crowds, urbanization or machinery.”

On May 31st, 1907, the Salt Lake Telegram noted heavy recreation use in City Creek, at Saltair, and at Lagoon.

May 28, 2017

May 24th

Birds of Concern

5:00 p.m. At dawn today, from the west half of the valley, I could see the upper slopes of Grandview Peak that feeds the stream, and they are still covered at some depth. Significantly, overnight temperatures have returned the sixites. This early evening, a summer storm front moves through from the southwest bringing warm rain and micrcobursts of fifty mile an hour winds. Under their pressure, individual trees in the canyon wave back and forth violently under momentarily black skies. The first Woods rosa blooms have opened for the season, and in the lower canyon, some Gambel’s oak leaves have reached a mature length of 5 inches. Since it is early in the evening, most birds are quiet. At Guardhouse Gate, five Warbling vireos weakly call and at picnic site 5, another is joined by a Song sparrow.

Near mile 0.6, I stop along the road to tie a shoelace. Looking up, a male mallard is swimming on the stream’s surface about seven feet below the roadside. The mallard is grazing on streamers of underwater grass that waves under the swiftly moving current.

Stink bugs line the roadside today, all uniformly standing with their abdomens pointed upward at above the centerline of the road. Given the presence of the spring birds, this is a wise resting posture. A two-inch unidentified, hair covered caterpillar crawls along the road. In a possible example of mimicry, each of its segments has a white, black and brown pattern that is nearly identical to the Variegated Meadowhawk dragonfly. Further up canyon, a one-inch beetle has two bright perpendicular orange bars on its back, and the orange tone is the same found on a Lady Bug. It is a carrion eater – the Burying beetle (Nicrophorus tomentosus). Unlike other Nicrophorus species, this beetle does not bury its carrion, but only drags it to a shallow depression and covers the carcass with leaf litter. A colony of tiny brown ants erupts from a crack in the pavement. A four inch circle contains an estimated 500 individuals that all crawl on top and over each other. About eight unidentified small brown butterflies are seen along the first mile. Their wings have a bright light-brown metallic upper side.

* * * *

Under the United States dual-sovereignty scheme, protection of endangered and other birds is divided between federal and state authorities. The federal government through the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has primary authority to protect both endangered and threatened bird species through the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 U.S.C. Sec. 1531), and with respect to non-endangered migratory birds, such as those seen in the canyon, through the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 (16 U.S.C. Secs. 703-712). The federal government is authorized to enter into cooperative agreements with States to share protective efforts for the migratory songbirds seen in the canyon through the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Act of 2000 (16. U.S.C. Secs. 6101-6109). While no federally endangered species are currently known to frequent the canyon, historically, the Yellow-billed cuckoo, a federally listed threatened species, may have used the canyon (Rawley).

The State of Utah, under its sovereign authority, also designates sensitive species that are given special monitoring attention (Utah Code Ann. Sec. 23-14-1 et seq.; Utah Administrative Rule 657-48; Utah Department of Natural Resources 2015), and the State exercises that authority under a policy to “seek to balance the habitat requirements of wildlife with the social and economic activities of man” (Utah Code Ann. 23-14-3(2)(iii) (2017)). Federal threatened species and Utah state sensitive species share the common quality that a birds’ declining populations raise issues as to its continued viability. State sensitive species found in the canyon are Bald eagles and Northern Goshawks. Other State sensitive species historically, but not currently, found in the canyon include Bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) and Ferruginous hawks (Buteo regalis) (Utah Department of Natural Resources 2015). In designating a sensitive bird species, the state circumscribes its authority to those species for which “there is credible scientific evidence to substantiate a viable threat to continued population viability” (Utah Administrative Rule 657-48; Utah Department of Natural Resources 2015). The state relies principally on the Breeding Bird survey data (May 21st, May 22nd and May 23rd) (Utah Department of Natural Resources 2015, Appendices; Sauer et al 2017).

Bird designation on the state list occurs primarily either because of global population size combined with local population trends. The State designates the Bald Eagle as a sensitive species primarily because of the size of the eagle’s continental breeding population. In 2006, there were about 10,000 breeding pairs of bald eagles left in the United States (out of a population of 70,000), and the 10 bald eagles that over-winter in Utah represent about thirty percent of all Bald Eagles west of the Rocky Mountains (Utah Department of Natural Resources 2015, Appendix A, Sec. 5.1). In using the Partner’s-in-Flight rating system, the eagle would be given a population concern index of 5 for having less than 10,000 breeding pairs. Conversely, the Bobolink have about 10,000,000 global breeding pairs, but the decline in the global and local populations is 1.6 percent per year (id, Appendix A, Sec. 5.8). The Ferruginous hawk (id, Appendix A), like the Peregrine falcon, is a recovering raptor with an estimated global breeding population of 80,000, or a population concern index of 4. But, due to recovery management efforts, its population is increasing. That both the Bobolink and Ferruginous hawk are believed to have been widely present in Utah historically, but now are largely absent from the state also supports their Utah sensitive species status (id, Appendix A).

In contrast, other birds that receive a private Conservation Concern Index of 13 like the Virginia’s Warbler and the Plumbeous vireo and that are found in the canyon are not designated by the State. Although they have locally declining population trends, the Virginia’s Warbler has a global breeding population of about 400,000 pairs and although the Breeding Bird Survey found only 192 pairs of Plumbeous vireos in the Intermountain West (Sauer et al 2017), the Plumbeous vireo has a global population of about 2,700,000. The Peregrine falcon is another bird not designated on the state’s list (Utah Department of Natural Resources 2015). The Peregrine was delisted by the federal U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1999, and the global breeding population of Peregrines is about 93,300. But there only about 90 breeding pairs of this still recovering raptor, or a sufficiently small population that it could wiped out by a set of determined illegal hunters in a few weeks. Although I feel some of these Utah state sensitive bird specie designations to be inconsistent, e.g. – the Boblink but not the Plumbeous vireo is designated, they evidence a process in place, albeit an imperfect process that operates under considerable uncertainty, to monitor and assess potential crashes in bird populations.

Uncertainty in the state-of-knowledge about bird populations and in the process of designating them for more intensive monitoring is also unsettling. Conversely, the signs that these researchers and their models provide allow us to act more thoughtfully than simply relying on political beliefs and folk-tales about nature’s ability to cope with change. That a considerable multi-state monitoring effort coupled with recovery planning exists is cause for celebration and not cynicism. That process has led to the ongoing recoveries of Peregrine falcons and Ferrigunous hawks. But even with all this effort, I find it hard to let go of the sense that we are pulling at the strings of nature’s web, and like Plato’s prisoners in his allegorical cave described in the Republic, our scientific efforts and mathematical models of specie risk give only a limited indirect view of a truer complexity that we do not understand.

* * * *

On May 24, 2007, 200 persons attend the annual Memory Grove clean-up (Salt Lake Tribune). On May 24th, 1996, veterans groups plan to gather at Memory Grove for Memorial Day. On May 24th, 1920, the North Bench Improvement Association Chairman G. A. Iverson published an artist conceptual drawing for a park in lower City Creek including a viaduct across the canyon at 5th Avenue (Salt Lake Telegram). On May 24th, 1913, members of the Rotary Club and City Commissioner Korn plan to tour the proposed route of a scenic highway up City Creek Canyon and into Morgan County (Salt Lake Tribune). May 24th, 1907, the Salt Lake Tribune urged the creation of reservoir dams in City Creek and Parley’s Canyons. On May 24, 1903, the Salt Lake Tribune overviewed many canyon drives around Salt Lake City, including in City Creek Canyon. One photograph includes Shippler’s image of a carriage going up a heavily wooded City Creek track (id). The article also relates a parable and legend about a young man who located a lost gold mine, and contrary to his Mormon bishop’s advice, spent his life in a vain attempt to relocate it. His futile search was described as his “punishment for his disobedience to the mandate of the prophet revealed by God” (id). The Tribune noted that hundreds of City residents go into the canyon on the weekends.

May 20, 2017

May 20th

Spring Bird List

3:30 p.m. In the morning I am woken by the cawing of an American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) standing outside my window, but then I drift back off to sleep. Around noon, neighbors are buzzing over their photographs of a common Red fox (Vuplus vulpes) hunting mice in the city cemetery about one-third of a mile from my home and on the south-City side of the east-south canyon ridgeline.

In the afternoon, the cold snap of the last few days has ended and the canyon is again warming into the sixties under blue, ideal spring skies. Driving into the canyon along Bonneville Drive, the grasses have reached up to three feet high, but in the canyon they remain between one foot to eighteen inches in height. Along Bonneville Drive, young Curly dock plants rise, but there are none in the fields at mile 1.5. Arrowleaf balsamroot has noticeably disappeared from the surrounding hillsides through mile 1.5, and its yellow color has been replaced by the duller yellow of fields of Dyer’s woad. Along the first mile, where a few days ago there was a single Sticky Wild Geranium, there are now ten, and four blue penstemons are blooming. The other major blossom are the white inflorescences of chokecherry bushes or trees. Blue is the color of canyon near the stream, but at the Pleasant Valley lower field, I scan the surrounding hillsides for a hint of Arrowleaf balsamroot. There is none, only the green of the balsamroot’s wide bases surrounded by wide swaths of Dyer’s woad. A pattern repeats in the many sun-exposed small gullies that lead to the western salient’s ridgeline and below the eastern salient’s cliffs: Groves of green Gambel’s oak or Red Maple fill the damp soil or seeps along side canyon gullies, but where the side canyons begin to flare out, the dryer soils, formerly covered with balsamroot, are now covered in Dyer’s woad. At lower elevations along the western slope above the Pipeline Trail and above Bonneville Drive, some balsamroots remain in bloom, but their numbers are rapidly dwindling from their shriveling flowers.

Butterflies are recovering in the rising heat. Yesterday’s Western tiger swallowtail and Desert Elfin butterflies are joined by a few Spring Azure and White cabbage butterflies. About eight new, small and black unidentified butterflies appear. They move too fast to see any detail. Two examples of a new unidentified small black spider are on the road, and a small black ant is carrying a whole insect pupae, about eight times it size, back to its underground ant lair. Common houseflies are active on the road, and a larger Blue-eyed darner dragonfly patrols up and down the road. Along the Pipeline Trail, I flush out two Mormon crickets. Instead of red underwings (May 8th), they now flash muted orange underwings.

Where the chokecherry bushes are warmed by the sunlight, they are the buffet for the insects. The best of these is along the Pipeline Trail near mile 0.9, and the chokecherry bush is covered in about seventy bees, flies and a American Lady butterfly. The bush sits near a seep in a bend in the trail. It is in a large-tree shaded area, but a single shaft of light penetrates and warms the bush and its nearby air to fifteen degrees more than its surroundings. Another shaded chokecherry bush about fifteen feet away is ignored by these flighted insects. On the chokecherry inflorescences there are also two types of flies, one large and one small, and three types of bees, including a red-rumped worker bumble bee, wild common honey bee (Apis var.) and one of two Utah varieties of the Carpenter bee (Xylocopa californica) (Hodgson and Trina 2008). Near this seep, a tiny unidentified slug, about 1 centimeters by 3 millimeters in diameter crawls up the trail, and I help to the mud next to the seep. Three other chokecherry bushes fifty yards up from Guardhouse Gate and a full chokecherry tree at picnic site 4 are similarly covered, but to a lesser degree. These are also sunbathed.

A flock of four distant raptors circle and glide up canyon. Birds along the first 1.5 miles of road can be divided roughly into seven neighborhoods or groups: at Guardhouse Gate, at road mile 0.4, at road mile 1.0, the lower half of Pleasant Valley, mile 1.1 to 0.9 of the Pipeline Trail, the Trail between mile 0.9 and 0.5, and the Trail between mile 0.5 back to the Gate. There are more calls than yesterday, with between 5 to 10 birds in each neighborhood. By sound alone, I can pick up a few of the easiest out of a chorus of ten different songs: the Lazuli Bunting at the Gate; a Song sparrow and an American Robin near mile 0.5; a near road mile 1.0,; and a Black-chinned hummingbird flying near Trail mile 1.0. I have gathered recordings of about 40 spring birds on my smart telephone, and have begun to replay them constantly in the hopes of building a beginner’s skill for distinguishing their songs. The avian soundscape is being to make more sense to my untrained ear.

As I reach Guardhouse Gate, there is a young woman standing 50 feet from the road, half obscured by blinds made leafed branches of Gambel’s oak, and she is singing gospel and folk songs in a loud but beautiful voice. She has long-black hair, is wearing a short, summer dress of yellow printed ethnic cotton, and is illuminated by that special warm light before dusk. Several strolling couples and myself discreetly walk up to the side of the road for an impromptu concert. For a moment, my mind is momentarily transported back to my adolescence and a similar scene from 1971. After a few minutes, everyone wanders away, leaving her to practice her singing without disturbance, but grateful for a unique moment.

* * * *

The slate of spring canyon birds for this year has sufficiently filled out that a list is timely. The 54 species represented shows the diversity of bird life that is finding living niches in the canyon and making connections between its plants and insects.

List of Spring Birds in City Creek Canyon March through May, 2017 by Order and-or Family (N=54)

Orders Accipitriformes and Falconiformes – Hawks, Eagles and Falcons – Birds that Hunt Other Birds

• Bald Eagle (immature) (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).*

• Cooper’s Hawk (Accipiter cooperii).

• Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos).

• Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis).

• Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus).

• Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis).

• Sharp-Shinned Hawk (Accipiter striatus).

Order Anatidae – Ducks

• Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos).

Order Apodiformes – Swifts and Hummingbirds

• Black-chinned Hummingbird (Archilocus alexandri).

Order Galliformes – Pheasants and Guineafowl

• California Quail (Callipepla californica).

• Chukar (Alectoris chukar).

• Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo).

Orders Piciformes and Coraciiformes – Woodpeckers and Kingfishers

• Belted Kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon).

• Downy Woodpecker (Picoides pubescens).

• Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus).

Order Strigiformes – Owls

• Western Screech-Owl (Otus kennicottii).*

Order Passeriformes – Larger Perching Birds

Family Corvidae – Crows, Jays and Magpies

• American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos).

• Black-billed Magpie (Pica pica)

• Common Raven (Corvus corax).

• Steller’s Jay (Cyanocitta stelleri).*

• Western Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma californica).

Order Passeriformes – Mid-sized and Smaller Perching Birds

Family Cardinalidae – Cardinals and Grosbeaks

• Black-headed Grosbeak (Pheucticus melanocephalus).

• Lazuli Bunting (Passerina amoena).

• Western Tanager (Piranga ludoviciana).

Family Columbidae – Pigeons and Doves

• Eurasian-collared Dove (Streptopelia decaocto) (invasive).

• Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura).

Family Emberizidae – Sparrows and Buntings

• Chipping Sparrow (Spizella passerina).

• Dark-eyed Junco, Slate type (Junco hyemalis).*

• Green-tailed Towhee (Pipilo chlorurus).

• House Sparrow aka European Sparrow (Passer domesticus) (invasive).

• Rufous-sided Towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus).

• Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia).

• Spotted Towhee (Pipilo maculatus).

Family Fringillidae – Finches

• House Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus).

• Lesser Goldfinch (Carduelis psaltria).

Family Hirundinidae – Swallows

• Bank Swallow (Riparia riparia).

• Cliff Swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota).

• Northern Rough-winged Swallow (Stelgidopteryx serripennis).

• Violet-green Swallow (Tachycineta thalassina).

Family Paridae – Chickadees

• Black-capped Chickadee (Poecile atricapillus).

• Mountain Chickadee (Poecile gambeli).

Family Parulidae – Wood-Warblers

• Orange-crowned Warbler (Oreothylpis celata).

• Virginia’s Warbler (Oreothylpis virginiae).

• Yellow Warbler (Dendroica petechia).

Family Turdidae – Thrushes

• American Robin (Turdus migratorius).

• Townsend’s Solitaire (Myadestes townsendi).

Family Tyrannidae – Tyrant Flycatchers

• Dusky Flycatcher (Empidonax oberholseri).

• Olive-sided Flycatcher (Contopus cooperi).

Family Vireonidae – Vireos

• Plumbeous Vireo (Vireo plumbeus).

• Warbling Vireo (Vireo gilvus).

Family – Other with Family Name

• Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptilidae Polioptila caerulea).

• European Starling (Sturnidae Sturnus vulgaris) (invasive).

• Red-breasted Nuthatch (Sittidae Sitta canadensis).

• Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulidae Regulus calendula).

Sources: Cornell Lab. 2017 Ebird Observation Lists by Bryant Olsen with Joshua Hunt; Author’s Observations. * – Author only sighting claimed.

* * * *

The Wasatch Front Mountain Range has not seen a decline in the number of avian species since the Euroamerican arrival, but no opinion is expressed on any decline in the population of these birds. As noted before (March 4th), ornithologist Robert Ridgeway conducted a survey of birds in Parley’s Park at the summit of Parley’s canyon about ten miles from City Creek Canyon between June 23rd and August 16th, 1869 (Rawley, 69-79). He found 116 bird species. Comparing Ridgeway’s list with Cornell Ornithology Laboratory’s Ebird List for City Creek Canyon for 1900 through 2017 shows 149 species (Cornell Ornithology Lab. 2016, Cornell Ornithology Lab. 2017). For the years 2000 to 2017, 147 species are listed, and for 2012 to 2017, Cornell totals 143 species (id). There are some minor non-duplicates between the historical and modern lists. The Yellow-bellied sapsucker is not currently found in City Creek, and the range of other birds has changed. Birds such as sandpipers and Sandhill Cranes do not presently frequent City Creek but can still be found at the Great Salt Lake’s beaches and marshes. But essentially, the avian diversity of Ridgeway’s 1869 mountain birds is still intact at City Creek Canyon after 148 years.

That the diversity of Utah’s many migrant birds is stable is also shown by Parrish, Norvell, and Howe of the Utah Division of Wildlife Resources in a multi-year study from 1992 to 2005 (Parrish et al. 2007; Norvell, Howe and Parrish 2005). Examining 202 statewide bird species over 12 years at 37 Utah sites, Parrish and colleagues found no significant trend in mean annual species richness (id, p. 27, Fig. 4).

* * * *

On May 20th, 2014, Salt Lake Fire Captain Scott Winkler reports that the City has spent $650,000 on six new firetrucks specialized from fighting fires in grass brush areas around luxury homes near Ensign Peak and in City Creek Canyon (Deseret News). On May 20th, 1903, the City Council and Mayor considered issue bonds to construct reservoirs including a 5,000,000 gallon reservoir at Pleasant Valley (Salt Lake Telegram). On May 20th, 1901, an estimated three-hundred people went up City Creek Canyon, one-thousand to Liberty Park, and three-hundred for recreation (Salt Lake Tribune). On May 20, 1896, the City council considered moving the responsibility for maintaining City Creek watershed protection to the health department and the duties of the City Creek Canyon patrolman were described (Salt Lake Tribune). There were five full-time patrolmen. Three men are employed at the lower Brick Tanks keeping the screens clear of debris. Two men are employed for 12 hours per day to service the upper high-line tank screens and to patrol the upper canyon to prevent sheep grazing. Two other men service the Twentieth ward tank and the Capitol Hill Reservoir (id). City Creek has been rip-rapped for two miles above the lower Brick Tanks. On May 20th, 1896, high spring run-off has turned City Creek into muddy water and the water is clearing (Salt Lake Herald).

May 19, 2017

May 19th

Sun Dappled Stream and Butterfly Hosts

5:15 p.m. The first mile is almost fully leafed-out and the understory is well-developed. The stream, which throughout the winter is fully visible, can now only be caught in partially obscured glimpses where the trees and underbrush break. Through those screens, the low, warm, yellow light of the falling Sun glides and lands on clear surface of the stream in round dapples. Today is an advance hint of the stream during the summer canyon summer which is now one month away. The key today difference is the stream runs high, but like the summer it has turned transparent. The stream has fallen about four inches overnight, but the water is pure. The spring period in which the stream runs, according to the City’s 1895 Mayor Baskin, as “very muddy, unwholesome and unpalatable water” (Feb. 6th) has passed. Rocks can clearly be seen through the rushing waters between its windowed surface.

It remains unseasonably cold – in the low fifties in the canyon and near freezing overnight – from the passage of the last storm. People in the city complain about it constantly having wearied of prior long winter season, and in the canyon, this has emptied the road. The cold has also suppressed the birds and the butterflies. A lesser total of 15 birds are heard along the road and the Pipeline Trail. Only a single Western tiger swallowtail and some gnats make an appearance.

A single Red-tailed hawk floats one hundred feet over the parking lot. At picnic site 1, my evening Lazuli Bunting is perched on the tallest tree. Along the Pipeline Trail using audio recordings and spectrograms, I am able to identify the songs of three of the some ten song birds, i.e. – a , a Warbling vireo, and a bleating evening “keah” from a Northern flicker. I have begun to make some progress into understanding the canyon birding soundscape (May 6th).

When the butterflies rally in next week’s rising heat, what will the adult butterflies and their caterpillars eat? I can find nothing specific for Utah, and therefore, using sources for other States, I compiled a list of possible hosts and food sources for some of the recently seen butterflies. It is a starting point, suggestive, and not authoritative. Although the butterfly spring peak has passed, I will have to take better notes on which butterflies are associated with which plants.

List of Possible Plant Hosts for Butterflies and Their Caterpillars in City City Creek Canyon
• Mourning cloak butterfly. Adult: Tree sap from Gambel’s oaks. Willows, elms, maple and ash trees. Caterpillar: The same plus aspen and river birch.

• White cabbage butterfly. Adult: Nectar from mustards, dandelion, asters, clovers and mints. Caterpillar: Same. There are various analogs to these plants in the canyon.

• Painted lady butterfly. Adult: Yarrows, thistles, sagebrush, sunflowers, milk-thistle, stinging nettle. Caterpillars: Same plus milkweed.

• American lady butterfly. Adult: Sagebrush, thistles, Wood’s rose and vetches. Caterpillar: Sunflowers, burdock, milkweed and aster.

• White-lined sphinx moth. Adult: Nectar from columbines, larkspurs, clovers, and thistles. I have seen Giant sphinx primary feed in the spring on dandelion. Caterpillar: apple and elm trees.

• Spring Azure. Adult: Dogwood, and berry plants.

• Common sulphur butterfly. Adult: Clovers and vetches and nectar from many plants. Caterpillar: Clovers and vetches.

• Sara Orange Tip butterfly. The Sara Orange tip is similar to the Julia Orangetip butterfly (Anthocharis julia browningi). For the Julia – Adult: Flower nectar from rock cresses, violets, and mustards. Caterpillar: Rock cresses.

Source: Dallas County Lepidopterists’ Society (2008). Host Plants by Butterfly (Web).

* * * *

University of Utah Meteorology Professor James Steenburgh recommends a new climate change application to examine whether local daily weather patterns are unusual. People tend to mid-interpret unusual cold and hot seasons as indications either for or against the existence of global warming, regardless of the separate issue of whether it is human-caused or not. The University of Maine and its Climate Change Institute has deployed an internet application that shows each day, a map of the globe and how surface temperatures at each point on the Earth differs from the average temperature at that point for that day over the last seventy years (University of Maine 2017a). A large dark blue spot on the map hovers over Utah, Colorado and Wyoming, indicating that the Intermountain West is 18 degrees Fahrenheit cooler that normal. The coldspot sits in the cradle of a “U” shaped dip in the jet stream. Overall, the globe is about 0.5 degrees warmer. The lesson to be learned from the map is even when their are local anomalies in weather, such as in the canyon today, the world average remains steady. The world average is the indicator of global warming and not local conditions.

* * * *

On May 19th, 2008, the City closes City Creek Canyon to spray herbicides on the invasive Starthistle plant (Salt Lake Tribune, May 20, 2008). On May 19th, 1906, the City tankman and former city councilman George D. Dean, was found dead at the Water tankman’s house in City Creek Canyon (Deseret Evening News, Salt Lake Tribune, May 20th, 1906). On May 19th, 1875, seminary students went picnicking in City Creek Canyon (May 19, 1875).

May 13, 2017

May 12th

Filed under: Bicyclist, Butterfly, Mallard, People — canopus56 @ 6:39 pm

Missed Butterfly Explosion

6:00 p.m. I have missed this year’s butterfly explosion. Each year, there is a day in which the first mile of the road is flooded with emerging butterflies. In the spring of 2015, I estimated 1,500 on one afternoon; in the spring of 2015, I estimated 500 on one day. This year, I have not seen their peak. It may be a matter of timing: this R-reproductive explosion occurs only on one or two days, and sometimes for only a few hours. During the explosion, it is possible to run through a cloud of four or five types of butterflies that hang in the air like snowflakes, and I count those days among the most significant in my life. It may also be a matter of population fluctuations. Butterfly populations can fluctuate widely, although no researcher or group publishes reports local counts.

Today, the canyon is filled with all kinds of human-powered transportation. There are unicycles, skateboarders, men pushing running trams filled with children, single bicycles, in-line skaters, rollerskiers and tandem bicycles. In recent weeks, I have also seen electric powered bicycles, one electric powered unicycle, and electric-powered rollerboards. Human-powered bicyclists dominate the road, and, in part, this is because of the hot weather and, in part, because they know that in three weeks, automobiles will return to the canyon (on May 31st). Then bicyclists will be restricted to alternate days, and the solitude that the canyon provides to joggers such as myself will be diminished. The canyon has been closed to automobiles, except for a few water plant employees and the canyon patrol, since September 30th of last fall.

Winds are high this evening, and the stream is a roaring mass of white. As I round a bend, a mallard is parachuting into the raging stream. He holds his wings in cup shape similar to that of a human para-glider as he descends facing into the wind, and with minute adjustments of his wingtip feathers, he expertly glides onto the one visible spot of calm water. His streamlined shape allows him to station-keep on the stream, but he quickly disappears onto land and into the rising brush at the stream’s bank.

* * * *

On May 12th, 2007, a mother whose son committed suicide took a memorial walk up City Creek Canyon (Deseret News). On May 12th, 2005 following a heavy snowstorm in the mountains with a high snowpack, Salt Lake City Dept. of Public Utilities Director LeRoy Hooten, Jr. assured residents that the floods of 1983 would not repeat due to infrastructure improvements built after 1983 (Salt Lake Tribune). In 1983, flooding occurred after a heavy snowpack lingered until May and on the benches, 10 inches of snow remained. That heavy snowfall was followed by a rapid warming. The Tribune noted that in 2005, the mid- and low- elevation snow had already melted (id). National Weather Service Brian McInerney cautioned that “there remains a lot of debris” in the higher streams and notes that the “the city utilities have been working overtime to clear this stuff . . .” (id). On May 12th, 2002, artist Tony Smith displayed a painting of City Creek at dusk at the Phillips Gallery (Salt Lake Tribune). On May 12th, 1993, a 37-year old man was critically injured after he fell from a steep trail in lower-City Creek Canyon (Salt Lake Tribune). On May 12th, 1904, the City Council Committee on Streets directed the street supervisor to improve the City Creek Canyon road from the mouth to the brick water tanks (Salt Lake Telegram).

May 7, 2017

May 4th

Cultivars with Butterflies

3:00 p.m. The temperature switch has flipped and the canyon reaches into the seventies today. Several days of seventy and eighty degree weather is forecasted. This has an immediate effect on the canyon. The first one-third of a mile is almost fully leafed out, and along the road, there are about forty butterflies. They are usual cast of characters seen in the last two weeks, except more concentrated:

• Mourning cloak butterfly.

• White cabbage butterfly.

• Painted lady butterfly.

• American lady butterfly.

• White-lined sphinx moth.

• Zerene fritillary.

• Spring Azure.

• Common sulphur butterfly.

A new character, a Julia Orangetip butterfly (Anthocharis julia browningi), appears for the first time. Between mile 0.3 and mile 1.0, there are another twenty butterflies, but they are less densely distributed. There is a wall that holds them to the lower canyon; the temperature abruptly drops by ten to fifteen degrees at mile 0.3. Ants are active again, Stink Beetles are busy crossing the road, and the air refills with gnats. As this thermalcline rises up the canyon over the next few days, I am hopeful for these many changes will also move upcanyon and intensify with the warm air.

In the first one-third of a mile, I hear about twelve birds in the now leaf obscured forest with three different calls. In the lower one-third, the Gambel’s oaks are mostly filled out with small, still growing leaves, and between picnic sites 3 and 4, a flat area is now green with small red maple tree leaves. Across from picnic site 3, a bird loudly calls from a tree not twenty feet away, but still it is unseen. After some minutes, I discover it neatly hiding behind a natural cave of screening leaves. Through my monocular, one eye, with a grey eye streak bounded by white above and below, stares back at me across a slate back and white rump. It is an immature Black-throated gray warbler (Dendroica nigrescens). The density of these migratory birds also declines beyond the first one-third mile.

On a slope above the Pipeline Trail, I find several Death camas (Toxicoscordion venenosum) plants in bloom. It has a complex inflorescence with white flowers arranged in a conical shape. Chokeberries at mile 0.2 are in full white and yellow flowering bloom. Along the first-mile of road near the stream’s water, I look closely at the Solomon’s seal plants. I estimate that Solomon’s seals cover about one-fifth of the first mile on either side of the road, and for each foot of road, there are about twenty plants. This implies that there are about 20,000 Solomon’s seals in the first mile. Looking closely, I count exactly three plants that show their characteristic exploding-star blossoms.

Over the last few days, I have collected the location of flowering trees, mostly green crab apple and plum trees, along the first two miles of road. These are cultivars, planted for their fruit, between 1847 and about 1920. Their early, bright flowers, that risk freezing from Utah’s late season cold, distinguishes them from the native plants. Although I do not know the identity of each, I will use the list to revisit them later in the season to see which have fruited.

List of GPS Locations for Flowering Cultivar Trees for Miles 0.0 to 2.0 (N=17) (Apple and Plums) dated April 27 to May 2nd, 2017
• 40°47.463 N 111°52.730 W, Near flood retention pond, east side of road.

• 40°47.501 N 111°52.701 W, Below parking lot, east side.

• 40°47.501 N 111°52.701 W, Behind first line of trees, above parking lot, west side.

• 40°47.629 N 111°52.597 W, Near picnic site 1, east side.

• 40°47.666 N 111°52.573 W, Near picnic site 1, west side.

• 40°47.762 N 111°52.516 W, Near picnic site 1, west side.

• 40°47.777 N 111°52.511 W, East side.

• 40°47.811 N 111°52.440 W, East side.

• 40°47.826 N 111°52.434 W, West side.

• 40°47.863 N 111°52.424 W, East side.

• 40°47.899 N 111°52.401 W, East side, next to far stream bank.

• 40°48.071 N 111°52.329 W, East side.

• 40°48.123 N 111°52.324 W, East side.

• 40°48.283 N 111°51.949 W, West side.

• 40°48.387 N 111°51.356 W, East side, Pleasant Valley apple tree.

• 40°48.394 N 111°51.306 W, East side.

• 40°48.408 N 111°51.220 W, East side.

The parking lot is overflowing and there are about thirty people and bicyclists on the road. But they are spread out, and canyon still retains its quality of solitude. At the parking lot, there is bow hunter gearing up for theevening. I ask him what is in season, he enthusiastically responds “Wild turkeys!”. I have heard no turkeys in the canyon since last December, and this hunter may only find empty scrub oak thickets and the reward of exercise.

The stream still runs strong, and checking the SNOTEL station on Lookout Peak, I find that there is still thirty-five water equivalent inches of high-snow pack left, or more than ten inches more than average. By this time of year, the high-elevation pack begins a steep decline such that by June 1st, it is gone. This year, I feel it will last into the middle of June.

* * * *

On May 4th, 2011, National Weather Service Brian McInerney estimated using NWS computer models, a 50 percent probability that City Creek would flood (Salt Lake Tribune). On May 4th, 1920, a citizens committee met to urge the construction of a Brigham Young memorial bridge across City Creek Canyon (Salt Lake Telegram, Salt Lake Telegram). On May 4th, 1916, the City passed an ordinance, authored by Commissioner Heber M. Wells, to further protect the City Creek watershed (Salt Lake Tribune). Measured included prohibiting tethering a horse within 100 feet of the stream, building campfires, allowing stray animals, or speeding in an automobile (id). On May 4th, 1913, George M. Ottinger, former Water Superintendent and the first Fire Chief of Salt Lake City, reviewed his life. He constructed the reservoir at Pleasant Valley, and noted that it had a concrete lid because originally, the City planned to construct an electric power plant on top of the reservoir (Salt Lake Tribune). (Ottinger also was an amateur painter. His painting of Pleasant Valley and its reservoir is in the archives of the Utah Museum of Fine Art. He was also present at the last lynching in Salt Lake City in 1887.)

May 5, 2017

April 30th

Butterfly recovery

3:00 p.m. It is overcast but warm in another weekend day, the parking is overflowing and there are over one-hundred persons on the first-mile of road. Hiking down the road is a bearded hunter-type wearing camouflage fatigues and strapped to his backpack at two whitened deer antlers. He has been collecting, motivated that a market that can bring one-hundred dollars for their best high-point discards. But more usually, the price four dollars for average samples. The first young one-foot tall cattails reappear at the seep below picnic site 6. Last year’s grove is rebuilding (October 25th). A mallard is resting in the flood retention pond, unperturbed by four anglers casting around it. In the first mile, I hear eight unseen chickadees in the thickets. The call of an unseen hummingbird is heard.

Butterflies are recovering from the cold weather, and I glimpse five types of small butterfly with a wingspan of less than one and one-half inches that is feeding near a red-rumped worker bumble bee. They are fast and this makes identification difficult. One is a dusky orange with small black wing spots and a black thorax, perhaps a Zerene fritillary. Another is a uniform light blue. The third is light blue with widely-spaced blue-veins on its wings, probably a Western blue-tailed (Evere amyntula). The fourth is the same, but the veins are closely-spaced, possibly a Spring Azure (Celastrina ladonecho). The fifth has the same molted brown pattern as the light-decomposing leaf layer on the ground. I notice it because a small black ant is dragging one of the wings away, that is twelve times its size, back to its nest. That the ant has chosen this prize illustrates the importance of protein to the ant colony’s development.

* * * *

On April 30th, 2006, the City continues to develop its proposal to create a 1.5 mile above ground greenway that would receive City Creek’s flow and “daylight” channel the creek above-ground from 45 South 700 West to the Jordan River (Salt Lake Tribune). On April 30, 2005, a Primary Children’s Hospital Patient ties a “wish note” on a tree to be planted in City Creek Canyon (Deseret News). On April 30th, 1996, the Salt Lake Tribune rates the Bonneville Shoreline Trail to City Creek Canyon the third best mountain bike ride in Utah. On April 30th, 1943, all travel into City Creek Canyon and north of Thirteenth Avenue was banned due to drought and extreme fire hazard (Salt Lake Telegram). On April 30th, 1899, the Social Wheel Club planned a bicycle outing up City Creek Canyon (Salt Lake Herald). Club plans for a 100-mile ride in June are discussed.

April 20, 2017

April 19th

Filed under: Butterfly, Cooper's Hawk, gnats, People, Sounds, Stream, White cabbage butterfly — canopus56 @ 3:06 pm

Biophilia – Part I – Water Meditation

2:00 p.m. Stream water is at its highest under a bright sun with cold air. The loud white noise of the snow-melt engorged stream has remained a constant companion that has dominated the canyon since March 12th. Combined with today’s bright sunlight, these two forces of nature, light and water sound, drive me into a restful sleepy state. Over the last month, I have developed an involuntary reaction to seventy decibel sound of mountain water. Stegner noted that next to the loud sound of mountain water, “it is impossible to believe that one will ever be old or tired” (Stegner, 41), in part, because such water is embodies a continuing renewal of force (id). In its grasp, I must sit in the sun at one of the many benches in the canyon, close my eyes, and slowly drift and meld with its noise. It is a restorative experience. I feel the energy of the stream and sunlight flow through me while at the same time my sense of body and self dissipates. This is how the earth heals both a person’s body and soul. It is in this way in which the life-giving sun and the canyon draws one towards life and away from human activities of city life. I rise filled with love towards nature, and I am not the only one. Two others are sitting on benches near the stream with half-closed eyes.

I have always had an innate drive to be at one with nature, and some of my earliest childhood memories are related to that experience. But where does that inherited drive in me and in others who visit the canyon come from?

Yesterday’s cold rain has set the insects back, and only a few are seen this afternoon. White cabbage butterflies feed on the wild carrots heads that line the road. Two new small butterflies appear, along with some gnats and a small bee that moves to fast to identify. There is new one and one-half inch orange butterfly with subtle black marks and distinct ends to its antennae, possibly a type of fritillary. The second unidentified butterfly is a small black butterfly with jet black wing and a subtle blue-black tinge to its abdomen.

I stop at picnic site 1 and again stare transfixed staring into the water as it speeds by. Suddenly, two Cooper’s hawks land in a tree next to stream. These are the two fast fleeting shapes that I saw skimming over the road a few days ago (April 15th). They are maybe fifty feet away; this is the closest that I have ever been to these raptors; and they have also come to sun themselves. The sit motionless in the high branches lazily opening and closing their eyes. The Cooper’s hawks have a grey backs, molted-brown breast and body feathers, bright white rump feathers and a banded tail. One of this pair has piercing red eyes. It’s companion teases the other, and in response the first plumps up its white rump feathers in agitation. I stand their motionless and have a good ten minutes sharing the sun with these residents.

A group of three mothers are pushing baby carriages down the road. Between the motion and deafening white noise of the stream, the babies are all quiet and content. What impression does the sound make on their unformed, young minds? It has become the fashion to purchase technology enhanced bassinets for infants. At night, sensors detect the infant’s motion automatically rocks the bassinet and floods it with stream-like white noise. Like me, the simulated stream sound sends the infants back to sleep.

* * * *

In 1964, psychoanalyst, humanist and cultural commentator Eric Fromm termed biophilia as one of two competing forces within each of us:

“There is no more fundamental distinction between men, psychologically and morally, than the one between those who love death and those who love life, between the necrophilous and the biophilous. . . . . The full unfolding of biophilia is to be found in the productive orientation. The person who fully loves life is attracted by the process of life and growth in all spheres. . . . . Good is all that serves life; evil is all that serves death. Good is reverence for life, all that enhances, life, growth, unfolding” (Fromm, 37, 47. emphasis in original).

Fromm warned that modern bureaucratic-technological society by separating humanity from nature was driving humanity towards a necrophilous or death orientation. Homo sapiens has become what Fromm called homo consumens (Fromm, 57). Fromm’s notion of homo consumens is analogous to what modern economists call homo economicus, a idealized human who makes decisions based only on rational economic basis concerned only with the experience of life as the act of consumption. Symptomatic of homo consumens is homo mechanicus or gadget man (Fromm, 58), a person obsessed with a life-view defined by manipulation of dead machines rather interacting and participating with life (id).

Fromm viewed humans not as an essence, but as a process flowing from two contradictory facts (Fromm, Chap. 6). First, humans are animals that are part of nature. Second, humans are self-aware beings with reason. The rightful use of reason to satisfy our material needs and psychological motivations in a contradiction draws us away from nature, and this creates biophilous and necrophilous tensions within psyches. Since many of our motivations are unconscious, we can never be fully sure whether reason in service of unconscious desires are destruction or healthy. The best free choice that a man, a woman or a society can exercise is to be aware when making decisions is whether they foster the tendency toward development and life or toward of anal-narcissism and death (id).

Fromm reviews how these two forces have a long history in religion, philosophy and psychoanalysis (id). The Judeaic Genesis narrative is of separation from nature by the exercise of free choice. Adam and Eve did not sin by choosing knowledge, they where given both knowledge and free choice by a creator, and as a consequence there were sent to a life of choices that drive either towards or away from life and development as a full human being (Fromm, 19-20). The Genesis narrative has its parallel in the Greek myths. Recalling that the Greeks viewed the universe as Earth-centered, Gaia was the creator not of the Earth, but of the entire universe, including their cosmology of heavenly Gods that we retain as markers of the constellations. Humans were separated from Gaia by the first female human’s (Pandora’s) exercise of free will in choosing to open the pithos, thus separating humanity from nature.

What draws me back to reunite with nature? Enjoyment of nature is a reminder, in those several decisions that we all must make on a daily basis, to try to choose as much as is practicable that which fosters all life.

* * * *

On April 19th, 1982, Salt Lake City officials declined to act on a Davis County proposal to create a commuter connector road around Ensign Peak and City Creek Canyon (Davis County Clipper). On April 21, 1914, work on widening and improving City Creek Canyon Road was completed to Pleasant Valley (Salt Lake Telegram), but Mayor Heber M. Wells restricted the use of automobiles only up to Eleventh Avenue (id). On April 19th, 1911, City Councilperson J. W. McKinney introduced a resolution to end gravel pit operations in City Creek Canyon in order to improve water quality (Salt Lake Telegram). On April 19, 1907, the City adopted an ordinance establishing a dedicated patrolman for City Creek Canyon (Salt Lake Tribune). The patrolman would be provided a horse and a salary of $2.75 per day. Duties included clearing rubbish from the canyon. Patrolman positions were also established for Parleys and Big Cottonwood and a ranchman was hired for Mountain Dell. On April 19, 1898, the City Engineer, Waterworks Superintendent, the Mayor and four citizen council members toured City Creek and recommended improvements, including repairing caved in seep tunnels and clearing and rip-raping the stream bed (Salt Lake Tribune). In 1898, there was a drought and the city officers were seeking to increase the water supply. On April 19, 1897, Mayor Glendinning toured City Creek Canyon due to flooding of Central City Neighborhoods (Salt Lake Herald).

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