City Creek Nature Notes – Salt Lake City

April 26, 2017

April 26th

Filed under: Dandelion, Meadow Mile 1.3, Plants, red bridge, Stream, Weather — canopus56 @ 8:18 pm

Biophilia – Part V – Biophilia Expression

5:30 p.m. Another heavy rain storm dominates the day, and the canyon parking lot is nearly empty. In the heavy rain, there are still three or groups walking with umbrellas and eight or nine bicyclists careen down canyon during a break in the rain. On Chimney Rock above the red bridge, I notice that its vertical face is covered in a green cloak of various small plants and mosses. Usually, the rock is red and barren. Using the monocular, the sandstone cliffs between mile 0.7 and mile 1.2 and the small sandstone massive on the west side of the road near mile 1.1 are also covered with small plants. The coming heat of May will quickly bake them off, but for now they are a welcome sign of spring’s explosion. In addition to the winter ice and spring thaw and the raw force of rain, these plants are the other force that will tear down the cliffs over geologic time. Even the Zen Rock is ignominiously colonized by dandelions, and dandelions along the road are reaching their peak bloom. The stream remains swollen and loud, but it is still four inches below its maximum spring peak.

* * * *

Stephen Kellert at Yale classified the values by which people relate to nature as a predicate to analyzing evidence supporting the biophilia hypothesis (Kellert 1993, Kellert 1984, Kellert 1976). Those values are a useful topology for understanding the nature experience:

List of Biophilia Values

Source: Kellert 1993, p. 59, Kellert 1984.

* Utilitarian – material exploitation of nature.

* Naturalistic – satisfaction from direct experience of nature.

* Scientific – Systematic study of the structure, function in relationships in nature.

* Aesthetic – physical beauty of nature.

* Symbolic – use of nature for metaphorical expression.

* Humanistic – strong emotional attachment or love to nature.

* Moralistic – ethical concern for nature.

* Dominionistic – dominance of nature.

* Negativistic – fear, aversion, or alienation from nature, e.g. biophobia.

To these, I would add two other values that may be subsets of elements already in Kellert’s topology: grieving and spiritual. People come to the canyon to grieve (July 22nd), and it even contains Memory Grove, a place of contemplation on those lost to death. In the 1800s, the modern forest model for cemeteries became popular, and this reflects how people associate death with a return to nature. In contrast, the Romans built sub-surface necropolses that were separated from the natural environment. There is a long history in western Judea-Christian history of prophets who go from cities to nature for meditation and reflection.

At home, I review my own journal entries and the digests of historical Utah newspapers regarding the canyon. Kellert’s biophilic topology provides an insightful and encompassing list of how I and other city residents have related to the canyon since the arrival of the Euro-Americans.

* * * *

On April 26th, 1948, two young cyclists were injured while racing down City Creek Canyon (Salt Lake Telegram). On April 26th, 1909, the City was ready to let several contracts, including installing a pipeline between the Twentieth Ward and the main in City Creek Canyon (Intermountain Republican). On April 26th, 1909, the Salt Lake Tribune reported that the previous Sunday, residents flocked to parks and for strolls up City Creek Canyon.


April 6, 2017

April 6th

Filed under: Arrowleaf balsamroot, Kingfisher — canopus56 @ 8:26 pm

It is enough. This is the Right [Natural] Place – Part III – Challenges for the Future

3:00 p.m. While going down canyon, a Kingfisher calls from the branch overlooking the stream below the red bridge. Then it flits downstream for a hundred feet, lands again, and starts calling. This repeats again and again for about one-third of mile down to picnic site 3. The Kingfisher is looking for dinner in the stream. Along the road, there is a six inch diameter circular clump of thin twigs suitable building a nest. I cannot tell if this is refuse from a prior season’s nest that the wind has released from the trees or if it is a cache dropped by a bird building a nest for this year. As I leave the canyon, the next storm front is rolling in from the west. On the drive out to the state capitol along Bonneville Drive, the first Arrowleaf balsamroot plant has bloomed with its small yellow sunflowers. In the upper canyon, these plants are barely forming.

* * * *

In Thoreau’s “Journal” on April 6th, 1853, he hears a robin, a lark, a bluebird, song-sparrows, and a Dark-eyed junco, and he sees a pigeon woodpecker. He watches honeybees feeding on skunk-cabbage flowers. April 6, 1854, he again sees honeybees feeding. He notes that white maples and alders are shedding pollen. On April 6thm, 1855, he sees blackbirds, ducks, and a goosander. He sees flies over decaying leaves.

* * * *

The Mormons have more choices to make regarding the canyons of Salt Lake valley, including City Creek Canyon. In other canyons not protected by planning similar to City Creek’s, development conflicts between elites seeking massive development and locals seeking to preserve all seven of the Salt Lake valley canyons continue today, principally in the form of proposals for high density ski area development and associated real estate expansion. Two new pressures for high-density development in the Salt Lake valley canyons have arisen since the Great Recession of 2008-2009. There has been a large expansion in hotels on the valley floor, and there are now over 20,000 hotel rooms in Salt Lake valley. Ski resorts in the Park City area have consolidated ownership under a large national company, and they have long sought to create the largest ski resort in the United States by interconnecting the Park City resorts by both developments and ski lifts that span ridge between the western Salt Lake valley canyons and the eastern Park City mega-ski resorts. The principal counter forces to those development pressures in the Salt Lake valley are Salt Lake City Corporation and the Metropolitan Water District (Feb. 24th) which seek to preserve the canyons as a watershed resource and the general Salt Lake County population that see its adjacent canyons as an outdoor recreation resource.

* * * *

Above, I say “the Mormons have more choices to make” because theodemocracy has again arisen in Utah. Although the non-LDS population in Salt Lake valley remains about thirty-three percent and is a slight majority in Salt Lake City limits, Brigham Young’s original vision of theodemocracy (March 16th) has combined with a larger Republican program of gerrymandering, the national Republican Redmap program (Daley 2016). The result of Redmap program has been the national gerrymandering of districts and the transformation of the country into more political groups with more divergent views. In Utah Redmap gerrymandering has resulted in odd wedge-shaped Utah federal congressional districts that stretch of hundreds of miles from Salt Lake City to rural areas in southern Utah and state level districts that minimize the probability of non-Mormon democrats being elected. On the federal level, the purpose of that gerrymandering is to dilute non-Mormon Democratic voters into larger pools of Mormon Republican voters and on the state level, the purpose of that gerrymandering is to result in the highest concentration and lowest number of non-Mormon Democratic legislative seats. The result over the last twenty years has been the increase the percentage of Republican Mormon state legislators from sixty-six percent to over eighty-five percent of legislators. Although Utah State legislators rank issues with similar priorities to the majority of Mormon Utah voters, the people who select Republican Utah legislators, Republican party delegates, have opinions that are far more right-wing leaning that the already conservative majority (Utah Foundation). The practical result of national gerrymandering in concert with Utah’s L.D.S. culture and a local political super-majority is the resurrection of Young’s theodemocracy (see Salt Lake City Tribune, March 28, 2012). Armed with political certainty that is amplified with underlying religious certainty, the Utah State legislature often implements policies that are disconnected from with the wishes of the local population. The scope of local community political options are always overshadowed and restricted by the questions of “What will the legislature allow?” or “Will the legislature override a local action when a compromise is reached?”. This is Young’s theodemocracy of religious elites in action. An example of theodemocracy in action was the Utah State Legislature deciding to allow Salt Lake County’s Mountainland Planning District (H.B. 293-S2) to sunset. This Salt Lake County planning commission included by legislative authorization, members drawn from all local municipalities and the unincorporated areas of the county instead of a small geographical unrepresentative region of the unincorporated county.

One choice and one task left undone in City Creek Canyon is the process of reforestation promised by the City in 1914 and 1934 in Public Law 63-199 and Public Law 73-259 (March 12th). Given the possibility that future peak flooding will be more extreme than the historical experience (Bekker et al. 2014; Feb. 9th), the lessons of Forsling (1931), the Utah Flood Commission (1931) and Cottam (1945) regarding reforestation learned during the floods of the 1920s and 1930s should be taken seriously. Even minor 12 percent removal of forests in the upper canyons can result in severe flooding in the valley, given an extreme storm event (Forsling). The Salt Lake canyons, including City Creek Canyon, should all be completely reforested as insurance against future flooding. Current cultural and political battles between theodemocratic elites favoring massive development of Salt Lake canyons and the general population that favors canyon preservation remain a continuing process that may never have an resolving endpoint. Again, these are choices to made by ordinary people, and which as shown in the history of City Creek Canyon can had good outcomes.

In his “Sound of Mountain Water” (Introduction, 38), Stegner, although disturbed by the changes in Salt Lake City since his boyhood (At Home in the Fields of the Lord), remained optimistic about the future of natural lands in the Western United States despite the broader historical conflict between the bravado of the West’s rugged individualism and the cooperative conservation that restored parts of the region from 1900 to the present. He noted that “cooperation, not rugged individualism, is the quality that most characterizes and preserves” the region (id). The individualistic approach historically gave way to the nature’s hand that forces cooperation during the regions’ and the canyon’s periodic aridity (id). That pattern of cooperation vs. competition is repeated in the history of City Creek Canyon as both a natural and an unnatural place.

* * * *

On April 6th, 2006, the snowpack at Lookout Peak is 173 percent of normal, prompting flooding concerns (Salt Lake Tribune, April 26, 2006). On April 6, 1919, a road going to the base of Ensign Peak, built with City funds, is nearly completed (Salt Lake Herald). On April 6, 1898, the Utah Forestry Association meets and plans to present a proposal to the City to plant trees in City Creek Canyon (Salt Lake Herald and Deseret News).

March 18, 2017

March 18th

Filed under: Arrowleaf balsamroot, red bridge, Seasons, Sounds, Stream, Woods Rose — canopus56 @ 7:24 pm

Modern Distractions

3:00 p.m. Only a few reminders remain of this morning’s 300 person St. Patrick’s Day scenic fun run from the Capitol and down City Creek Canyon below Bonneville Drive. Running and bicycling events are common in the modern canyon, and I estimate that there are about twenty held each year. Today’s eighty degree temperature is another record breaking high, and the canyon and its wildlife is in new uncharted terrain. The stream remains well below flood stage, but runs high and loud. All I can hear is the stream. The sounds of the few birds in the canyon are muffled under the stream’s white noise. On a whim, I decide to hike along part of the route of the 1880s water pipeline that runs along the south east wall of the canyon from the red bridge to the Morris Reservoir in the Avenues. There is no trail. There is just a path made by re-burying the water main, and at points along its route, the two-foot diameter iron pipe is exposed. Confusingly, this gravity feed water pipeline runs uphill to Morris Reservoir, although its intake pipe at the water treatment plant is higher than its low point at the red bridge. If gravity fed, pipeline must act as a four mile long siphon.

While hiking along the pipeline, I notice several Wood’s rose plants who, like the one I saw a few days ago near mile 0.2, have opened their buds and extended small leaves. Along this south-west facing sunny hillside, there are many broad leaf ground plants, including Arrowleaf balsamroot (Balsamorhiza sagittata Nutt.), have begun to poke up through the earth. Returning down-canyon, I examine dirt areas more closely, but only a stretch near mile 0.1 on the west side of the road shows similar growth by new ground cover plants. These are signs of the coming spring.

In Thoreau’s “Journal” on March 18th, 1853, he sees a blackbird and a song-sparrow, and on March 18th, 1855, a gull. March 18th, 1858, he records many song-sparrows. On March 18th, 1860, he notes skunk cabbage is in bloom.

I have almost reached my third full year of daily jogging in the canyon. During the first nine months, I ran with headphones and listening to music, and today, I estimate for runners more than half run with digital devices playing music, and for bicyclists, about one-third ride listening to music. After the first nine months, I came to feel that the music was a distraction from experiencing the canyon. In a 2014 study, University of Utah psychologist David Strayer, who regularly walks in City Creek Canyon, and his colleagues Ruth Ann and Paul Acthley of University of Kansas, published a study comparing the pre- and post-creativity scores of two small groups of women before and after four day nature hikes where digital devices were banned (Salt Lake Tribune, Dec. 14, 2012; Strayer 2012). Test scores in this small study supported new effects of the Attention Restoration Theory (ART) hypothesis. The ART hypothesis is that immersion in nature has a restorative effect on the brain’s depleted pre-frontal executive attention mechanisms. In obvious non-research terms, going outwards restores the soul and replenishes the body. No news there since Lord Byron invented the Grand European Tour to the Alps. But Strayer and colleagues’ small size study also found a new additional effect: immersion in nature is not just restful. Several days without technological devices increases creativity and problem-solving scores measured by a generally accepted psychological test by fifty percent. However, the study size is small and has not been replicated. Medical proof usually requires larger studies or many smaller studies that reproduce the original effect. Usually, I regard the results of one-off small-sample-size studies and their conclusions as provisional, and the results of such studies are are frequently found to be incorrect in follow-up research using larger sample sizes. But while jogging today, I happy to accept Strayer and the Acthleys’ findings, even if it may just be my ego’s confirmation bias seeking self-approval of my decision to ditch my music player. After two-years of running without music and, as today, listening to the sound of the stream, I see runners with cell phones strapped to their arms as disconnected from the canyon experience. But I am being haughty and judgmental.

On March 18th, 1996, Salt Lake City hydrologist Dan Schenck reported 64 inches of snow in upper City Creek Canyon, more than 130 percent of normal (Salt Lake Tribune).

March 8, 2017

March 8th

It is enough. This is the Right [Natural] Place – First Peoples Contact – Part VI

1:30 p.m. True pre-spring has set in, and temperatures rise to the sixties. On the remaining snow around the stream and road, I count about thirty stoneflies, one early butterfly or moth, a spider, and one red-orange ladybug. Curiously, several snags along the road have orange paint marks on their trees. From milepost 1.5, looking down canyon, I hear the screech and see a raptor circling over mile 1.0. It is probably the Red-tailed hawk seen yesterday. Returning down canyon at the Red Bridge and mile 0.9, an out-of-place silhouette on a tree high on the ridgeline catches my eye, and pulling out the monocular, I see the raptor pruning itself in the warming sun. Further down-canyon, the orange paint is explained. A crew from the City is cutting down any snags adjacent to and that lean towards the road. Last year in the March or April of 2016, there was a great windstorm that caused the watershed patrol to close and hurriedly evacuate everyone from the canyon as several trees came down across the road. I ran through the storm and was bemused by the evacuation order. The probability of a runner or walker being struck by a falling tree was astronomical, but out of politeness and respect to the officer, I left the canyon. Last year’s storm was probably the impetus for today’s felling of the snags.

First contact did not go well for the First Peoples. As previously noted, on the evening of Young’s first day in the valley, July 24th, 1847, a group of 12 to 15 members of Ute Chief Wanship’s band from Salt Lake valley and his brother Little Wolf’s group from Utah valley greeted the new immigrants (Little, 100). Although bread was exchanged and attempts at communication were made (Little), a member of the Utah valley band jumped a colonist horse and sped off. Chief Wanship dispatched a posse, a chase ensued, and the result of which the two band members were killed about three or four miles south of present day Pioneer Park (Little, 100). A familiar pattern of Euro-American colonization followed. First Peoples taught the colonists how to dig for roots and tubers that sustained the colonists through their first winter (Nov. 30th), and the colonists provided or traded blankets to the First Peoples and at times First Peoples captured colonists and vice versa. Having no immunity to western diseases, the First Peoples in the valley succumbed to measles during the fall of 1847 (Bancroft; Gottfredson, 24; Conetah, 37). As previously noted (March 1st), in December 1848, the colonists, being agriculturalists, systematically killed all predator wildlife in the valley (Bancroft, 287 ftn. 287), and presumably, they also quickly consumed all the deer and buffalo. First Peoples then sought recompense in the form of payments in cattle, and as Utah’s Euro-American population continue to explode, Ute members in the face of hunger from dwindling wildlife, resorted to cattle theft (Duncan, 188; Conetah, 38; Covington, 56).

War ensued. Both a 1978 article, historian Howard A. Christy of Brigham Young University Press and a 2008 a book by Standford historian Jared Farmer extensively researched this slide into hostilities (Christy; Farmer). In March 1849 when Ute foodstuffs would have been at their lowest, a forty-five man posse was sent to Utah Lake to retrieve stolen cattle. On March 3, 1849, thirty-five Utah militia men were again sent to Utah Lake with orders to put a “final end to their (the Ute group’s) depredations in future” (Christy, 220). Four braves were killed and the remaining Ute women and children were returned to Salt Lake City. In early January 1850, again when the First Peoples would be at their lowest in available food, settlers in Utah Valley killed a Ute for alleged cattle stealing (Christy, 223). The band, seeking justice, threatened to attack settlements. In January, fifty or sixty head of cattle had been stolen around Utah Lake (Covington, 51-52; Christy, 222-223). On January 31, 1850, in Salt Lake, according to an account by a pioneer in attendance at a meeting to address the issue on file in Brigham Young University Archives, Brigham Young was quoted as stating,

“I say go [and] kill them. . . . Tell . . . to go and kill them . . . let the women and children live if they behave themselves. . . . We have no peace until the men [are] killed off—never treat the Indian as your equal.” (Christy, 224, ftn. 30).

On January 31st, Utah Militia General Daniel H. Wells, also in attendance at the meeting, issued “Special Order No. 2” to Capt. George D. Grant, dispatching a company of the militia to Utah Valley:

“You are hereby ordered . . . to cooperate with the inhabitants of said [Utah] Valley in quelling and staying the operations of all hostile Indians and otherwise act, as the circumstances may require, exterminating such, as do not separate themselves from their hostile clans, and sue for peace” (Christy, 224).

At another meeting on February 10th, 1850, Young explained that, “[W]e were cold [told] three years ago, if we don’t kill those Lake Utes, they will kill us . . .” (Christy, 225)

The effect of the January 31st meeting was that Brigham Young had caused to be issued an “extermination order” against the Tumpanawach band (Conetah, 38). “Extermination order” is a phrase that in the 1840s and 1850s had a various meanings. The Mormons themselves had been the subject of an “extermination order” by Missouri’s Governor in the 1840s, that led to the Mormon’s decision to seek a refuge in the unoccupied lands of the United States (Sillitoe, 44-45). In the United States Indian removal era of the 1820s to the 1840s, an “extermination order” also referred to the removal or driving out of peoples from a region (Merriam-Webster Dictionary), and it did not have the same overtones of genocide and ethnic cleansing that the phrase has come to mean after the Wanersee Conference of World War II and the Bosnian crisis of the 1990s. However, Young’s directive to kill places the order of 1850 in the latter category.

General Wells, later Mayor of Salt Lake City, led the militia troops, accompanied by surgeon James Blake and Lieutenant Gunnison of Captain Stansbury’s survey expedition (Farmer). The Stansbury expedition happened to be in Salt Lake City at the time. In ensuing running battles on February 4th (Covington, 51), and February 8th through the 13th, 1850 between the Provo River and sixty miles west to Table Mountain, Utah, General Wells reported killing between 43 and 48 male warriors (Christy, 225; Farmer). Farmer, who has compiled the best account of this conflict, estimates Ute deaths at approximately 100 (id). At Table Mountain, the remaining Utes, including women and children, were massacred on a frozen lake (Farmer, 71-78). First, some women and children were captured, and then using them as hostages, the militia induced the braves to surrender. The militia then executed the men in front of their wives and children, and as the mothers and children fled, they were shot down in the back (id). After the massacre, army surgeon Blake decapitated some of the warrior’s bodies, possibly for medical research purposes (Christy, 226; Farmer). Fifteen to twenty women and children were returned to Fort Utah for distribution into settler families (Christy, 225; Covington, 51 quoting Gunnison, 147). Later in 1850, the State of Deseret legislature made plans to petition the U.S. Congress to remove all members of the Ute Nation from Utah to California, Wyoming or Idaho (Christy).

In 1853, “Walker’s War”, that is Wakara’s War, broke out in which many Ute warriors were killed, and Ute opposition to colonization was decisively defeated militarily by the colonist’s Nauvoo Legion (Conetah, 38-39; Sillitoe, 45; Duncan, 188; Simmons, 91-94). Although this history is barbaric by modern human rights standards, this pattern is no different from what occurred throughout the West during the Manifest Destiny era (see Brown).

Due to urbanization, there is little archaeological record of the Ute’s habitation of Utah (Jennings 1978), the Salt Lake Valley or City Creek Canyon. By 2010, the tribal census of the Northern Ute Nation, which only includes Utes with fifty-percent or more of native blood, enumerated about 3,100 persons out of a total First Peoples’ population from all tribes of 11,870 (Office of the Secretary) and compared to 20,000 for all Utah First Peoples in 1847 (McPherson, 20).

The Northern Ute Tribe still holds its annual gathering of about 100 members, reminiscent of their historical Utah Valley summer harvest festival. In the early 1900s, they met in City Creek Canyon (Salt Lake Herald, July 21, 1903), but they now hold their annual harvest festival in Salt Lake City’s Liberty Park at a summer “Living Traditions” festival. While the City has never issued a reconciliation apology to the Northern Utes for the Table Mountain Massacre, the colorful dance costumes of the Utes are used to promote the City as a place of diversity (Salt Lake City 2016b, 24).

The level of the Ute hunter-gathering population in 1847 also supports the view of the Salt Lake valley as being abundant in grasses and wildlife. In conclusion, historical evidence indicates that prior to the Euro-American colonization of 1847, the Salt Lake Valley was an ecologically productive, lush environment by western United States standards. Hints of that pre-colonization condition can still be seen in the canyon today. In City Creek Canyon, the open fields between milepost 2.0 and mile 2.3, are the best representative habitat of what the valley looked like prior to 1847.

In Thoreau’s “Journal” on March 8th, 1853, he notes melting snow has created rivulets of running water. On March 8th, 1854, he finds that the red leaves of mountain cranberry are in bloom. On March 8th, 1855, he finds skunk-cabbage in bloom. On March 8th, 1857, he sees his first hawk of the season. On March 8th, 1860, he sees a flock of grackles. Thoreau notes that mosses and lichens grow in all seasons including winter. Grasses and other plants also continue to grow during winter.

On March 8th, 1904, a new Republican administration takes office at City Hall and vetoes the salaries of several city employees, including Joseph Pugsley, City Creek patrolman (Salt Lake Tribune).

January 4, 2017

January 3rd

Filed under: Geology, mile 1.2, picnic site 8, red bridge — canopus56 @ 12:51 am


5:30 p.m. In the last twenty-four hours, about a one-foot of snow has fallen in the canyon. I only go for a short run to milepost 1.0 and the red bridge. Up canyon from the red bridge to mile 1.1 and below picnic site 7, as noted in part on December 24th, the canyon contains three types of rock. First, on the south east canyon wall and running down to the far (south) side of the stream are shelves of “Tertiary Conglomerate No. 2,” a “[c]onglomerate and sandstone and sandstone, pale-brown to medium-gray, poorly consolidated to well-cemented. . . .” (Van Horn and Crittenden’s 1987). The effect of erosion in the canyon, by both wind and water, are best seen here. The water-drilled natural arch at the red bridge (Dec. 24th) is made of Van Horn’s red sandstone conglomerate. Above on the south canyon wall is Chimney Rock. Chimney Rock is eroded by many air and freeze-thaw water hollows and proto-arches. Second, above the natural arch at the red bridge and on the south-east canyon side of the stream are layers of Tertiary Conglomerate No. 2 of the Van Horn’s medium-gray color type. Both these layers formed between 35 and 37 million years ago when the canyon and Utah were part of an inland sea at the foot of a mountain range to the west. The lower gray layers were deposited when the sea was deeper, and the upper sandstone as the mountain ranges were nearly worn down and the sea was filling in. Between the red bridge and below picnic site 7, large grey-green conglomerate boulders stick out of the hill-side and are being undercut by stream. In one extreme case, an overhanging fifteen foot ledge has been undercut by the water, but it is being held in place by tree growing on its top side. In another unusual example, a stone the size of a house is partially undercut by the stream (described on Dec. 31st as providing ice-forming shade). In the future, it this undercut outcrop will fall into the stream and perhaps form a new natural arch. Third, on the west side of the stream and extending down to Guardhouse Gate are, according to Van Horn and Crittenden, “Tt – Tuffaceous deposits (Tertiary) – Siltstone, sandstone, and limestone containing abundant volcanic shards . . .” This layer is also between 35 and 37 million years old. Three hundred feet upstream from the red bridge, a twelve foot tall boulder of Tertiary Conglomerate No. 2 has rolled into the middle of the stream. It is an anomaly, in that it survives undercutting, but has been carved by water into an an egg shape. I call it the “zen rock”.

In Thoreau’s “Journal” on January 3rd, 1853, he identifies nature with the female aspect and humans with the male aspect.

On January 3rd, 1911, geology professor Fred J. Pack gave a lecture on the Wasatch Fault, and described how the line of the fault extends from Box Elder County in the north, travels through City Creek Canyon, and then on to Nephi in the south. Dr. Pack described a 100 foot escarpment caused by an earthquake that is associated with the fault near the Beck Street Hot Springs (Salt Lake Tribune).

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