City Creek Nature Notes – Salt Lake City

June 23, 2017

June 20th

Summer

First Day of Summer

External Link to Image

Comparison of City Creek Canyon Road near Mile 1.1 in Winter on November 24th and on the First Day of Summer, June 20th.

6:00 p.m. It is nearly 100 degrees Fahrenheit on this first day of summer. Although this is the longest day of the year, and the amount of total light is four times the amount of light that occurs on the winter solstice (March 21st), this is usually not the hottest day of the year. The Earth continues to absorb the sun’s heat by melting at the poles, and thus, the hottest days of the year with 100 plus degrees Fahrenheit are lagged by three or four weeks to the end of July. But the recent heat wave is an unusual preview of the coming summer hottest days. Today, and more typical of late July, the heat boils the water from the land, and in the afternoon, great cumulus clouds rise and re-deposit the day’s water during the cool of the evening. As I approach the canyon, the sky to the west is gray and boiling. The bottom of the cloud layer swirls in confused eddies and circles. Winds rage and the trees wave back and forth as if they are in a current below the surface of the ocean. Only the large Common whitetail dragonflies (Libellula lydia) hover in the strong breeze. The whitetail’s are misnamed; their tails are more often black. From the safety of the leaf screened branches, Song sparrows, Chirping sparrows and Black-headed grosbeaks call. First, the air smells of summer, but then it mixes with the rain primed, fresh moisture. Small spatters fall, and then a brief deluge comes. Runners on the road, including myself, jog without their shirts on. The afternoon storm passes, the air clears, and all is renewed.

Along the first mile road, Milkweed plants have grown large, fecund seed heads.

* * * *

Although Thoreau declares summer to begin informally on June 1st (see his “Journal” on June 1st, 1853), astronomically summer begins on June 20th. Per Thoreau’s “Journal” on June 20th, 1840, he sees mica particles glittering in sand. On June 20th, 1852, he notes blue-eyed grass flowers are closed in the before sunset, and he hears an American Bittern drumming on wood. He notes that grass fields are red tinged because the grass has gone to seed. On June 20th, 1853, he sees meadow-sweet flower and water lilies. During a full Moon walk, he admires how water reflects black under moonlight. He encounters a skunk. He notes that elm leaves and trunks have the same hue under moonlight.

* * * *

On June 20th, 2011, the Salt Lake Tribune published a historical article on George Ottinger, founder of Salt Lake’s fire department and later in the early 1900s, Salt Lake City’s Superintendent of Waterworks. He lived in an adobe house on 3rd Avenue and E Street. As a young man, Ottinger was an adventurer. He traveled as a sailor to China, Hawaii, the Indonesian Islands, and Panama, before returning for a late California Gold Rush (id). Omitted from this article is Ottinger’s witnessing of the last 1887 lynching of a man in downtown Salt Lake City. On June 20th, 1999, Utah Jazz assistant coach Mark McKown was injured while speeding down City Creek Canyon a bicycle (Salt Lake Tribune). He was accompanied by Utah Jazz star basketball player Karl Malone. On June 20th, 1998, City Creek Canyon was closed for three days after torrential rains caused a mudslide (Salt Lake Tribune). On June 20th, 1908, City Engineer L.C. Kesley budgeted 9,000 USD to extend an iron pipeline from State Street to City Creek Canyon Road and 50,000 USD for a distributing reservoir in City Creek (Salt Lake Herald). On June 20th, 1896, ore samples taken from the Willard Weihe claim in the Washington mine group, 1.5 miles north of Eagle Gate in City Creek Canyon, assayed at 94 and 84 USD per ton (Salt Lake Herald).

June 14, 2017

June 13th

Filed under: Black Mountain, Ensign Peak, Grandview Peak, Little Twin Peaks, People, Weather — canopus56 @ 4:55 pm

Artists’ Eyes

2:00 p.m. A cold front races into northern Utah, temperatures drop to the fifties overnight and sixties during the day. Cold rain falls beginning at night and into the afternoon. Today, I have not gone to the canyon, but rather have gone to State Capitol to see an exhibition of maps about Utah and Salt Lake City called “Utah Drawn”. Bird’s eye views of cities were popular forms of city maps during the nineteenth century. In such maps, an artist renders a three-dimensional view of a city map and the surrounding country-side as if the city were seen from an airplane. Today’s exhibition has three. Ever focused on the notion of Mormons as an exceptional people, the curator’s notes focuses on how the Mormon Temple is rendered in each map. I am more interested in what the artist’s rendering of City Creek Canyon and Little Black Mountain in the background of each map says about how City residents’ viewed their closest canyon.

Between this exhibition and those on file with the Library of Congress, there are four such bird’s eye view maps:

A Bird’s Eye View of Salt Lake City, Utah Territory, 1870, by Augustus Koch. The Koch 1870 maps renders lower City Creek Canyon in great detail with each mill house shown individually. The south Salt Lake salient with Little Twin Peaks and Little Black Mountain are rendered in realistic proportions. The detail of the lower canyon reflects its significance as water source and location of industry. The mountains and canyons are not shown as distant, inaccessible places.

A Bird’s Eye View of Salt Lake City, Utah, 1875, by Eli Sheldon Glover. Glover’s view of the City looks from Ensign Peak to the south west and does not show City Creek Canyon. An irrigation ditch is drawn that takes water from the canyon down to 400 East and First Avenue, then called Fruit Street. The canyon is unimportant in this image.

• Salt Lake City, Utah, 1887, attributed to Augustus Gast. The 1887 view, probably also done by Augustus Koch and incorrectly attributed to Augustus Gast, is my favorite. City Creek Canyon and Little Black Mountain are done in a style evocative of a Chinese ink painting. Little Black Mountain is shown disproportionately as high mountain peak. The mountains and canyon are mysterious, inaccessible places. This map is on display at State Capitol.

Salt Lake City, Utah, 1891, by Henry Wellge. Wellge’s painting is unique in that it is the only bird’s eye view that also includes the Great Salt Lake and Antelope Island in the background. Lower City Creek Canyon is again shown in great detail, reflecting its relative importance. Ensign Peak and Little Twin Peaks on the southern Salt Lake salient at shown in great alpine peaks. Little Black Mountain is wholly missing, and Grandview Peak looks more like the Grand Teton. Here, the mountains are rendered as grand imaginary lands. The State Capitol exhibition curator attributes this map to the Salt Lake Real Estate Association, and notes that its purpose was attract buyers to the City’s then real estate boom.

* * * *

In Thoreau’s “Journal” on June 13th, 1851, he describes a moonlit walk, sees fireflies, and hears a whippoorwill. On June 13th, 1852, on notes several flowering plants along a river including blue bead lilies, red osier dogwood, and a carrion flower that emits a strong scent that attracts gnats. He hears bluebirds and robins. On June 13th, 1853, he describes two young hawks and their nests. He notes violets have past peak bloom and wild rose is blooming. He sees a rose-breasted grossbeak. On June 13th, 1854, he describes colorful yellow and red blooming plants. He sees minnows in a stream and hears crickets. On June 13th, 1860, he notes sycamore trees are losing their leaves.

* * * *

On June 13th, 2013, the City reported on a new enforcement push to remove homeless tent camps in City Creek Canyon (Salt Lake Tribune). On June 13th, 1914, City Commissioner W. H. Shearman, Water Supply Charles F. Barrett, and City Engineer Sylverster Q. Cannon planned to the headwaters of upper City Creek in order to determine if a reservoir could be built at the site of an existing natural lake, that in 2017 does not exist (Salt Lake Tribune). The Tribune described the lake in City Creek as:

“The lake in City Creek Canyon is located in a land-locked basin near the head of the canyon. It has no natural outlet, and the water seeps out through the bottom, rising again several miles down canyon in great springs which form the City Creek Creek stream. A glacial moraine blocks the lake from a natural outlet and caused the lake to form. The lake assumes large dimensions at this time of the year, although it shrinks to a mere swamp later in the summer.”

On June 13, 1908, City Water Superintendent J. R. Raleigh described how his crews were raising 18 inch embankments along City Creek for about three-quarters of a block through the city in order to contain flood waters (Salt Lake Herald). Raleigh recommended constructing a 36 inch aqueduct pipe to remedy the problem. On June 13, 1908, Ben Jones drank five pints of whiskey at a saloon on Second South, passed out in the street, and was sentenced to work on the prison road gang working on boulevard in City Creek Canyon (Salt Lake Telegram). On June 13, 1899, high waters in City Creek prevented closing of irrigation diversion gates out of fear that the city would be flooded (Salt Lake Herald). On June 13, 1898, the Utah National Guard held practice battles in City Creek Canyon (Salt Lake Tribune). On June 13th, 1883, a petition to support a waterpowered marble polishing plant in City Creek Canyon was presented to the City Council (Salt Lake Herald). On June 13th, 1883, the Salt Lake Herald reviewed the manufacturing of silk at waterpowered looms in City Creek Canyon (Salt Lake Herald).

June 12th

Filed under: Weather — canopus56 @ 4:48 pm

High Wind

4:00 p.m. The jet stream has broken the late spring heat wave, and as the forces of heat and cold attempt to equalize, high winds again whip through the canyon. Trees wave back and forth violently. In the city, trucks overturn, tree limbs crack and fall onto houses. Winds over sixty miles an hour are recorded.

* * * *

In Thoreau’s “Journal” on June 12th, 1851, he records summer plants including golden senecio, marsh speedwell, foreget-me-nots, blue flag, blue-eyed grass, red sorrel, and lupines. He sees a flock of swallows. On June 12, 1853, he hears a wood-thrush, disturbs a partridge with brood, examines a hawk’s nest, and sees rattlesnake plantain and wild moss rose. On June 12, 1854, notes that red clover is blooming. He sees a kingfisher. On June 12, 1855, he sees redwings and examines a vireo nest. On June 12, 1859, he records red sorrel.

* * * *

On June 12th, 2003, the Salt Lake Fire Department tested the water in lower City Creek Canyon after the creek turned green (Deseret News). A water testing chemical, florazine, was the suspected pollutant. On June 12th, 1915, the City Commission noticed contracts to construct the 5,000,000 gallon reservoir at Pleasant Valley and to reenforce the old High Line Water Tank (Salt Lake Herald). On June 12th, 1912, the connection between water tanks 1 and 2 in City Creek were replaced with 12 inch iron pipe (Salt Lake Telegram). On June 12, 1883, a new marble polishing plant was being built above the old Empire Mill site (Salt Lake Herald). The marble source was located in City Creek (id).

June 13, 2017

June 4th

End of the Snowmelt

7:00 p.m. Temperatures reach 97 degrees today; one degree short of a record. As a consequence, the SNOTEL station at Louis Meadows records that all of the snowpack at near mile 7.0 of the canyon is gone. This is a seasonal milestone, and from now to next October 1st, the stream will flow only from rainfall and water stored underground. This afternoon, clouds stream in from the west, but it is too hot for the rain, which falls in curtains from a thousand feet overhead, to reach the ground.

Birds are quiet in this later evening, but still a single Blacked-head grosbeak is seen and heard near mile 0.2. A single House sparrow and a Chirping sparrow are also heard along the first mile road. Later, returning down canyon, I am for the first time able to see and hear the grosbeak performing a call with three low notes followed by a trill. This is a common call heard in the first canyon mile, but it does not appear in my reference recordings for this grosbeak. Other songs and calls for this grosbeak are in the reference recording. Butterflies are also subdued in the evening. There are single instances of a Mourning cloak, a Cabbage white and a Western tiger swallowtail. Gnats are rising in the heat.

* * * *

In Thoreau’s “Journal” on June 4th, 1852, he hears birds singing at dawn and he sees that dandelions have gone to seed. On June 4th, 1853, crickets are singing at noon. He examines oak and chokeberry leaves. On June 4th, 1855, white and red clover are blossoming, and mosquitoes are rising. On June 4th, 1857, he notes “earth-song,” or the combination of the sounds of insects and birds as a sign of summer. On June 4th, 1860, he notes elm trees are in full foliage, and that warblers have left for the season. Buttercups are in bloom. He sees a cat bird.

* * * *

How much water is stored in the east and west halves of the Salt Lake salient (may 14th) that drain into the stream? Using the difference between stream flow data taken at the canyon’s water treatment plant from 1950 to the present and precipitation records from the Louis Meadow SNOTEL station for 2000 to the present, I am able to make a rough estimate of the lower bound of stream flow that comes solely from underground reservoirs. For two months each year – June and July, average stream flow exceeds average precipitation. In June, the average stream flow exceeds rainfall by about 318 acre feet, and in July, the stream flow exceeds rain by about 242 acre feet, for a mean underground flow into the stream of 280 acre feet per month. This 280 acre feet per month is the lower bound. Summer rainfall will evaporate and never reach the stream or recharge underground aquifers. Depending on underground geologic structures, all of the water that falls within the 19.2 square miles of the canyon may not flow towards the stream. The oak and fir forests and grasses consume considerable quantities of rain water, and those withdrawals are not included in the sum of the difference between inflows and outflows. Thus, the true amount flowing into the stream from underground aquifers could be two or three times the lower bound of 280 acre feet per month. The 280 acre feet of water each month is enough to flood 28 of the city’s 10 acres blocks with a foot of water. The volume of that water is about 12.2 million cubic feet of water (0.000083 cubic miles), or a cube about 230 feet on a side. In contrast, the Mormon Temple that sits at the heart of City Creek Canyon’s delta (March 10th and March 12th) is 288 feet tall.

The lower bound of 280 acre feet of underground storage is a reasonable estimate. Treating the 12 miles of the Salt Lake Salient as two inward facing right-triangles that are 1.25 miles from the stream to ridgeline, the volume of the salient that drains towards the stream is about 32.5 cubic miles. The 0.000083 cubic miles of underground water flow is only 9 of 10,000,000ths of the salient’s volume. That water can easily fit in the pores space between the salient’s rocks.

* * * *

On June 4th, 1934, University of Utah Engineering Professor F. W. Muir reported that tree rings taken from City Creek Canyon and near Brighton show that in the last 300 years, there have been many drought cycles (Salt Lake Telegram). On June 4th, 1914, the City acquired 80 acres of private land in City Creek (Salt Lake Telegram). On June 4th, 1910, Land and Water Commissioner Frank Mathews reported that green caterpillars, possibly one million, are moving down City Creek Canyon defoliating (“stripping bare”) the trees (Salt Lake Telegram). On June 4th, 1906, streets in Salt Lake City principally from 300 West to 800 West, were severely flooded (Salt Lake Telegram).

May 22, 2017

May 21st

Filed under: Birds, Leopard slug, Light, Sounds, Weather — canopus56 @ 4:40 am

Utah Bird Population Trends

8:30 p.m. I am on a short, quick jog near twilight, and towering broken clouds float from the west to east over the lower canyon. As the sun nearly sets, dimmed green and brown ridgeline contrasts with slate gray cloud bottoms below the descending sunset line, but the cloud tops are enveloped in a bright pink and white hues against the deepening blue sky. Two Leopard slugs take advantage of the cool evening to cross the road. Twilight turns to night. Unlike my snowbound fall night run (December 12th) which focused on the sound of silence, tonight the crashing white noise of the stream drowns out any thoughts as I return to the gate through the darkness.

* * * *

Bird populations are almost impossible to estimate with any accuracy. The best that can usually be done is to measure changes in the density of birds and from those changes a change in the overall population level can be inferred. Numerical population estimates exist for Utah game waterfowl birds and endangered species that travel along the eastern branch of the Pacific Flyway that passes through the Great Salt Lake. The Pacific Flyway is one of the three great North American migratory bird flyways that stretch from Canada to central Mexico. Thus, the populations of many birds see in the canyon that winter to the south is dependent on the availability of habitat two thousand miles to the south. Similarly, bird populations seen to the north and south of Utah are dependent on the marshes of the Great Salt Lake. There is no alternative route for birds to cross Utah and Nevada’s arid lands.

Olson of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service reports a 13 percent increase in waterfowl birds between 2009 and 2016 (55,868 divided by 49,464 birds) (Olsen 2017). (The Utah study methodology changed in 2009 and this prevents examining longer term trends back to 1992). With respect to non-game birds such as those smaller song birds in the canyon, Parrish, Norvell and Howe with the Utah Division of Natural Resources 1992 to 2005 study of 37 Utah bird sites found that (Parrish et al. 2007; Novell, Howe and Parrish 2005). Their study created the longest running dataset of high quality bird density estimates for the western United States (Parrish et al. 2007, 77). About half of Utah’s 440 bird species are residents; they other half are annual neotropical migrants; and, more than 70 percent of those birds use riparian habitats, like the Jordan River, as habitat during part of their life cycle (Parrish et al. 2007, 12). Based on estimated the density of 202 species of Utah birds from 1996 to 2005 from observations and recaptures, Parrish and his colleagues found that overall Utah bird populations have declined 5 percent over the thirteen years from 1992 to 2005 (id, 4, 67, Fig. 8). The Utah bird decline should be viewed within the context of the fifteen year drought cycle. The Great Salt Lake water level has been declining, its marshes have less water, and other bird refuges are drier. Population declines would be expected from such changes in habitat. Parrish, Norvell and Howe did not have a study site in City Creek Canyon.

The decline in Utah neotropical migratory birds is not uniform for birds found in City Creek Canyon. Between 1995 and 2001, the density of American Goldfinches, American Robins, Black-headed Grosbeaks, Broad-tailed hummingbirds declined, but the density of Yellow Warbler’s increased (Novell, Howe and Parrish 2005, 561-562, Figs. 2-3). Gross waterfowl populations along the Great Salt Lake are increasing, despite the drought. Available copies of their 2007 report do not provide density information disaggregated by individual species. In summary, Utah state neotropical bird studies indicate that the population of birds in the canyon relatively stable, but populations may decline further based on changes in local climate.

* * * *

Given that a high proportion of Utah birds that use riparian habitats, Parrish, Norvell and Howe recommended adoption of various management activities to improve habitat along Utah’s waterways without necessarily waiting for further study demonstrating the efficiency of remediation efforts in improving bird populations (Parrish et al. 2007, 76-77). Cause and effect are well known and obvious in these circumstances. In 2011, the Utah State Legislature authorized the expenditure of 37 million USD to support the Utah Watershed Restoration Initiative for joint private-public riparian rehabilitation ventures (Clark, A., and Utah Department of Natural Resources, 2013; (Utah Department of Natural Resources, 2017b). Through 2016, the Utah Division of Wild Resources reports that it has completed 1,607 projects covering 1.3 million acres of Utah Wetlands.

The Utah Watershed Restoration Initiative has funded Yellow starthistle abatement in City Creek Canyon during 2010 through the present (Utah Department of Natural Resources, 2010, 2016, 2017a, 2017b). Those projects included chemical spraying of 8 acres in Pleasant Valley to control the weed in 2017 (Project Id. 3693), 2016 (Project Id. 3404), 2013 (Project Id. 221), spraying 70 acres in 2011 in Pleasant Valley (Project Id. 1642), and spraying 150 acres five miles up the canyon in 2010 (Project Id. 1464). Another spraying in the canyon is proposed in 2018 (Project Id. 4040). The Initiative funds the Utah Conservation Corps currently working in City Creek (May 17th, October 16th) (Utah Department of Natural Resources, 2017a).

On May 21st, 2003, in a letter to the editors of the Salt Lake Tribune, Richard Pieros observes how new FAA landing flight paths for the Salt Lake International Airport over Emigration Canyon, City Creek Canyon and the Avenues has resulted in loss of solitude. (Later, the FAA revised the flight paths and airliners no longer take off or landing over City Creek Canyon or the Avenues, except in rare unusual instances. This transfers the airport noise burden to West Valley City residents and to wildlife along the shores of the Great Salt Lake.) In May 20th, 1994, Bryant Elementary School Children participated in a neighborhood cleanup of Memory Grove and City Creek Canyon (Salt Lake Tribune). On May 21st, 1916, City Engineer Sylvester Q. Cannon planned to measure the volume of lakes in City Creek Canyon in order to see if they were suitable to act as reservoirs (Salt Lake Tribune).

May 19, 2017

May 19th

Sun Dappled Stream and Butterfly Hosts

5:15 p.m. The first mile is almost fully leafed-out and the understory is well-developed. The stream, which throughout the winter is fully visible, can now only be caught in partially obscured glimpses where the trees and underbrush break. Through those screens, the low, warm, yellow light of the falling Sun glides and lands on clear surface of the stream in round dapples. Today is an advance hint of the stream during the summer canyon summer which is now one month away. The key today difference is the stream runs high, but like the summer it has turned transparent. The stream has fallen about four inches overnight, but the water is pure. The spring period in which the stream runs, according to the City’s 1895 Mayor Baskin, as “very muddy, unwholesome and unpalatable water” (Feb. 6th) has passed. Rocks can clearly be seen through the rushing waters between its windowed surface.

It remains unseasonably cold – in the low fifties in the canyon and near freezing overnight – from the passage of the last storm. People in the city complain about it constantly having wearied of prior long winter season, and in the canyon, this has emptied the road. The cold has also suppressed the birds and the butterflies. A lesser total of 15 birds are heard along the road and the Pipeline Trail. Only a single Western tiger swallowtail and some gnats make an appearance.

A single Red-tailed hawk floats one hundred feet over the parking lot. At picnic site 1, my evening Lazuli Bunting is perched on the tallest tree. Along the Pipeline Trail using audio recordings and spectrograms, I am able to identify the songs of three of the some ten song birds, i.e. – a , a Warbling vireo, and a bleating evening “keah” from a Northern flicker. I have begun to make some progress into understanding the canyon birding soundscape (May 6th).

When the butterflies rally in next week’s rising heat, what will the adult butterflies and their caterpillars eat? I can find nothing specific for Utah, and therefore, using sources for other States, I compiled a list of possible hosts and food sources for some of the recently seen butterflies. It is a starting point, suggestive, and not authoritative. Although the butterfly spring peak has passed, I will have to take better notes on which butterflies are associated with which plants.

List of Possible Plant Hosts for Butterflies and Their Caterpillars in City City Creek Canyon
• Mourning cloak butterfly. Adult: Tree sap from Gambel’s oaks. Willows, elms, maple and ash trees. Caterpillar: The same plus aspen and river birch.

• White cabbage butterfly. Adult: Nectar from mustards, dandelion, asters, clovers and mints. Caterpillar: Same. There are various analogs to these plants in the canyon.

• Painted lady butterfly. Adult: Yarrows, thistles, sagebrush, sunflowers, milk-thistle, stinging nettle. Caterpillars: Same plus milkweed.

• American lady butterfly. Adult: Sagebrush, thistles, Wood’s rose and vetches. Caterpillar: Sunflowers, burdock, milkweed and aster.

• White-lined sphinx moth. Adult: Nectar from columbines, larkspurs, clovers, and thistles. I have seen Giant sphinx primary feed in the spring on dandelion. Caterpillar: apple and elm trees.

• Spring Azure. Adult: Dogwood, and berry plants.

• Common sulphur butterfly. Adult: Clovers and vetches and nectar from many plants. Caterpillar: Clovers and vetches.

• Sara Orange Tip butterfly. The Sara Orange tip is similar to the Julia Orangetip butterfly (Anthocharis julia browningi). For the Julia – Adult: Flower nectar from rock cresses, violets, and mustards. Caterpillar: Rock cresses.

Source: Dallas County Lepidopterists’ Society (2008). Host Plants by Butterfly (Web).

* * * *

University of Utah Meteorology Professor James Steenburgh recommends a new climate change application to examine whether local daily weather patterns are unusual. People tend to mid-interpret unusual cold and hot seasons as indications either for or against the existence of global warming, regardless of the separate issue of whether it is human-caused or not. The University of Maine and its Climate Change Institute has deployed an internet application that shows each day, a map of the globe and how surface temperatures at each point on the Earth differs from the average temperature at that point for that day over the last seventy years (University of Maine 2017a). A large dark blue spot on the map hovers over Utah, Colorado and Wyoming, indicating that the Intermountain West is 18 degrees Fahrenheit cooler that normal. The coldspot sits in the cradle of a “U” shaped dip in the jet stream. Overall, the globe is about 0.5 degrees warmer. The lesson to be learned from the map is even when their are local anomalies in weather, such as in the canyon today, the world average remains steady. The world average is the indicator of global warming and not local conditions.

* * * *

On May 19th, 2008, the City closes City Creek Canyon to spray herbicides on the invasive Starthistle plant (Salt Lake Tribune, May 20, 2008). On May 19th, 1906, the City tankman and former city councilman George D. Dean, was found dead at the Water tankman’s house in City Creek Canyon (Deseret Evening News, Salt Lake Tribune, May 20th, 1906). On May 19th, 1875, seminary students went picnicking in City Creek Canyon (May 19, 1875).

May 18th

Filed under: Lookout Peak, Stream, Weather — canopus56 @ 1:38 am

High Elevation Snowmelt

External Link to Image

Snotel Snow Pack at Lookout Peak. (Water Equivalent Inches). Source: Natural Resources Conservation Service. (May 18, 2017).

1:00 p.m. Cool weather remains, but the stream remains a raging serpent. The water runs cleaner than the last week and I fill a small bottle it. The life-giving water contains no obvious impurities. The SNOTEL station for the high canyon on Lookout Peak shows the snowpack reducing at a prodigious rate. Between May 1st and today, the inches of water in the snowpack has dropped from about 35 inches to 20 inches. Its graph over time shows a near vertical descent, and the rate indicates the high snow pack will be gone around June 3rd. Then the stream have to depend only meager rainfall and underground recharge from the surrounding hills.

* * * *

On May 18th, 1994, 190 people participated in a running race through lower City Creek Canyon to raise money for disabled children (Salt Lake Tribune). On May 18th, 1918, employees of the County Treasurer’s Office went for a picnic in City Creek Canyon (Salt Lake Tribune). On May 18th, 1908, Salt Lake Tribune reported that “thousands of people” spent the day strolling in City Creek Canyon. On May 18th, 1893, City Engineer reported that he had constructed two dams in the City Creek to arrest gravel coming down the stream (and into drinking water) during high stream flows (Salt Lake Herald).

May 18, 2017

May 17th

Winter Interlude

3:30 p.m. The jet stream is again broken and chaotic (May 8th). This time the discontinuity stations a huge low pressure system, shaped like some misplaced galaxy with great arms separated by open spaces, over Idaho, and this weather system brings cold arctic air back into the canyon. Temperatures drop over night into the thirties and only reach the high forties during the day. Banished winter makes returns. Throughout the morning, the sky, between the arms, alternates with an hour of sunlight that turn again to dark skies and rain. As I enter the canyon, light snowflakes, miniature versions of winter’s mature form, fall from the sky, and turn to a light rain. The high walls of the canyon are again covered with a light snow and Little Black Mountain is frosted white. But the snow is deceptive. Along the road only a few patches remain on the leaves of the broadest ground plants. On the hillsides, the Arrowleaf balsamroot blossoms reflect white, not yellow, but this will all be gone in another hour. Next to the winding road, the plants are invigorated by cold, and groups of songbirds sing louder, not softer, in defiance of the prior season. Two bonded pairs of mallards swim the flood retention pond. Three groups of songbirds collect at the Gate, near mile 1.0 and again in Pleasant Valley. A single raptor is soaring up-canyon along the salient. Butterflies are vanquished.

At Pleasant Valley, the 50 meter diameter Gambel’s oak grove has now fully leafed out. There members of Utah State University’s Utah Conservation Corps have returned (Oct. 16th) for further work on their starthistle field abatement. Last year’s removal of the starthistle plants has made a lush, green field in lower Pleasant Valley, but it has given the myrtle spurge an opportunity to return. Today, they pull the spurge in the field and on the hillside surrounding the oak copse. It is hard, labor-intensive work, perhaps impractical, and I can see the temptation that biologists in the past had to use either chemicals or biological controls in the form introduced invasive insects. Both techniques end with unanticipated, adverse results. The City has already tried chemical sprays on the starthistles (Salt Lake Tribune, May 20, 2008), but that failed at Pleasant Valley.

I revisit the stretch of flat stream near picnic site 11 that I have named Rivendell (Jan. 19). I expect to find the entire area flooded. The stream has doubled in size to about 18 feet across and 18 inches in depth, but its surface runs smoothly downstream. There is a same sandy beach, barely two feet wide, at the water’s edge, and there deep hoof prints tell of mule deer coming for a drink earlier in the day.

Returning down canyon by the Pipeline Trail, the Sun comes out as the next arm of the low pressure system arrives. A Broad-tailed hummingbird flutters in the oaks, and another chorus of about eight songbirds starts up again. On the road, the warmth entices a bright yellow Western tiger swallowtail butterfly out of the bushes.

* * * *

On May 17th, 2006, Sarah Grant is training in City Creek for a 3,000 mile cross-country fund raising ride to benefit Splore, a local disabled outdoor program (Salt Lake Tribune). She plans to raise $30,000. On May 17th, 1926, twenty-four men and women of the Wasatch Mountain Club hiked up City Creek to “Scotts Peak” at the canyon’s headwaters (Salt Lake Telegram). On May 17th, 1919, City Park Commissioner George Y. Wallace argued for the creation of a scenic boulevard up City Creek Canyon and then along 11th Avenue and the bench to attract the new automobile tourism (Salt Lake Telegram).

May 10, 2017

May 8th

A Jet Stream Back-flip

4:00 p.m. The air is warm, humid and muggy, a rarity in May in Utah. A line of clouds also is uncharacteristically moving from the southeast to the northwest over the mouth of the canyon, and the east side of the valley is overcast while the west side is clear and sunny. Usually, clouds move from the southwest to the northeast as storms move in from the Pacific to the west. As I pull into the canyon parking lot, the division of these two bodies of air meet, and the result is a light, pleasing cold rain. The parking lot is full, but the road is empty except for a few walkers with rain gear. I have left my rain poncho at home, and for the first time in months, I jog with my shirt off to keep it dry. The rain is so lite that it sprinkles evaporate immediately and my shirt, held in one hand, remains dry. The rain continues on and off for the first mile, but abates at Pleasant Valley. The sky is in reverse. The dark line of clouds makes a lens across the front of the canyon, and there, although their are fewer clouds, the rain is heavy. Just beyond the lens, the sky is a deep sunny blue. The difference in the air masses makes the rain fall. At milepost 1.5, the clouds are thicker and more menacing, but their is no rain. It is a sublime scene.

Later at home, I check the jet stream map. As the globe’s air has warmed, the circumpolar jet stream has fragmented into great eddies containing low pressure systems. Unusually, the jet stream now brings moisture up from the Gulf of Mexico in a counter-clockwise turning storm. That is why the humidity reaches an unheard of sixty-five percent, and why I enjoy a refreshing spring shower while jogging. Back at Guardhouse Gate on the return leg, the clouds open up and it starts to rain heavily. The rain rejuvenates me. At other locations in the valley, lightening strikes fall with large hail stones.

At Pleasant Valley, a single Wild Turkey climbs a hill-side. Hunting season for turkey remains open from May 1st until May 31st, and now the turkeys travel alone instead of in groups. On the way down, I pass two turkey hunters and joking say, “They are up there; I know where they are; but I will not tell you where.” A tuff of dropped fur on the trail discloses the passing of a mule deer. Last year’s Curly dock (Rumex crispus) have dropped their seeds and disappeared. A new crop of these plants rises along the Pleasant Valley road. Although a noxious weed, I favor its deep red colors that contrast both with summer’s browned grasses and winter’s white snow. All of the young dock plants are healthy, except for one, that has been almost entirely consumed by Black bean aphids (Aphis fabae), and this aphid has a preference for dock species. A large three-inch Blue dasher dragonfly (Pachydiplax longipennis) streaks by on some unknown, but purposeful, errand. A Mormon cricket with red-colored underwings is startled along the Pipeline Trail and the meadow at Pleasant Valley.

* * * *

On May 8th, 1920, a citizen group meeting was planned to consider constructing a viaduct over City Creek Canyon (Salt Lake Herald). On May 8, 1909, a father committed suicide by hanging himself in the canyon because his business had failed and he could no longer provide for his family (Salt Lake Herald).

April 26, 2017

April 26th

Filed under: Dandelion, Meadow Mile 1.3, Plants, red bridge, Stream, Weather — canopus56 @ 8:18 pm

Biophilia – Part V – Biophilia Expression

5:30 p.m. Another heavy rain storm dominates the day, and the canyon parking lot is nearly empty. In the heavy rain, there are still three or groups walking with umbrellas and eight or nine bicyclists careen down canyon during a break in the rain. On Chimney Rock above the red bridge, I notice that its vertical face is covered in a green cloak of various small plants and mosses. Usually, the rock is red and barren. Using the monocular, the sandstone cliffs between mile 0.7 and mile 1.2 and the small sandstone massive on the west side of the road near mile 1.1 are also covered with small plants. The coming heat of May will quickly bake them off, but for now they are a welcome sign of spring’s explosion. In addition to the winter ice and spring thaw and the raw force of rain, these plants are the other force that will tear down the cliffs over geologic time. Even the Zen Rock is ignominiously colonized by dandelions, and dandelions along the road are reaching their peak bloom. The stream remains swollen and loud, but it is still four inches below its maximum spring peak.

* * * *

Stephen Kellert at Yale classified the values by which people relate to nature as a predicate to analyzing evidence supporting the biophilia hypothesis (Kellert 1993, Kellert 1984, Kellert 1976). Those values are a useful topology for understanding the nature experience:

List of Biophilia Values

Source: Kellert 1993, p. 59, Kellert 1984.

* Utilitarian – material exploitation of nature.

* Naturalistic – satisfaction from direct experience of nature.

* Scientific – Systematic study of the structure, function in relationships in nature.

* Aesthetic – physical beauty of nature.

* Symbolic – use of nature for metaphorical expression.

* Humanistic – strong emotional attachment or love to nature.

* Moralistic – ethical concern for nature.

* Dominionistic – dominance of nature.

* Negativistic – fear, aversion, or alienation from nature, e.g. biophobia.

To these, I would add two other values that may be subsets of elements already in Kellert’s topology: grieving and spiritual. People come to the canyon to grieve (July 22nd), and it even contains Memory Grove, a place of contemplation on those lost to death. In the 1800s, the modern forest model for cemeteries became popular, and this reflects how people associate death with a return to nature. In contrast, the Romans built sub-surface necropolses that were separated from the natural environment. There is a long history in western Judea-Christian history of prophets who go from cities to nature for meditation and reflection.

At home, I review my own journal entries and the digests of historical Utah newspapers regarding the canyon. Kellert’s biophilic topology provides an insightful and encompassing list of how I and other city residents have related to the canyon since the arrival of the Euro-Americans.

* * * *

On April 26th, 1948, two young cyclists were injured while racing down City Creek Canyon (Salt Lake Telegram). On April 26th, 1909, the City was ready to let several contracts, including installing a pipeline between the Twentieth Ward and the main in City Creek Canyon (Intermountain Republican). On April 26th, 1909, the Salt Lake Tribune reported that the previous Sunday, residents flocked to parks and for strolls up City Creek Canyon.

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